Right after the pouring of champagne in a glass, thousands of rising and bursting bubbles convey gas-phase CO2 and volatile organic compounds in the headspace above the champagne surface, thus progressively modifying the gaseous chemical space perceived by the consumer . Gas-phase CO2 and ethanol vapors are the main species released in the glass headspace and thus inhaled by champagne tasters. Their accurate quantification is therefore crucial to better understand the strong interplay between the various parameters at play during champagne tasting and to avoid or decrease the very unpleasant carbonic bite [2,3].
A diode laser infrared spectrometer aimed at quantifying gas-phase CO2 in the headspace of static champagne glasses was developed in our group in the past few years [4,5]. This spectrometer has been further improved recently with the addition of a multipath system dedicated to the mapping of CO2 in the whole glass headspace [6,7]. After a strong increase in the concentration of gas-phase CO2 during the pouring step, a rapid vertical stratification is observed in the headspace of a static glass (with decreasing CO2 concentrations while moving away from the liquid surface and as time proceeds). Even more recently, an inter-band cascade laser (ICL) was also added to the spectrometer to quantify the concentration of gas-phase ethanol in a champagne glass headspace.
Moreover, before smelling a wine, it is worth noting that enologists, sommeliers, and most of tasters are commonly used to swirl their glass with the aim of increasing flavor release . A video processing program was developed to decipher the manual rotation travel done by a statistical sample of more than 50 people swirling various glasses filled with various water levels. Based on the statistical data, a homemade orbital shaking device was designed to replicate a standardized and repeatable human swirling motion. Depending on both the radius of gyration and the angular velocity of rotating glasses, the concentration of gas-phase CO2 found in the headspace of various glasses was followed with time through diode laser spectrometry.
Presenting author: Florian, Lecasse – GSMA, Spectroscopie Laser et Application, Equipe Effervescence, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne
Additionnal authors: Raphaël Vallon, GSMA, Spectroscopie Laser et Application, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Anne-Laure Moriaux, GSMA, Spectroscopie Laser et Application, Equipe Effervescence, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne,Frédéric Polak, GSMA, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Bertrand Parvitte, GSMA, Spectroscopie Laser et Application, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Virginie Zeninari, GSMA, Spectroscopie Laser et Application, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Clara Cilindre, GSMA, Equipe Effervescence, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Gérard Liger-Belair, GSMA, Equipe Effervescence, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne
Keywords: Champagne, Wine Swirling, Carbon Dioxide, Bubbles, Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy