IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Non-targeted analysis of C13-norisoprenoid aroma precursors in Riesling

Non-targeted analysis of C13-norisoprenoid aroma precursors in Riesling


Significant wine aroma can be formed from non-volatile precursors that are linked to sugars, including but not limited to grape-derived monoterpene and C13-norisoprenoid glycosides. Most studies aiming to profile glycosidic flavour compounds in grapes and wine are performed by the analysis of hydrolytically liberated aglycones, either enzymatically or through acid hydrolysis, mainly due to a lack of analytical standards, diversity of glycosides, and their small concentrations. However, aglycone analysis alone can not reveal the full
complexity of precursors and the structural rearrangements of aglycones during and post-release, as it has been repeatedly reported for TDN and other related C13-norisporenoids that arise slowly during wine ageing.
The main objective of this study was to develop an analytical strategy to profile the potential presence of putative lead candidates and the presence of unknown precursors involved in the formation of the potent aroma compound, TDN, in Riesling wine. To uncover the structural complexity of TDN precursors, we firstly utilised a non-targeted metabolomics
approach (using HPLC with QTOF mass spectrometry) on Riesling grape grown under varied light conditions to determine potential candidates; putative TDN precursors ex wine were then further characterised by tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS).
In addition to previously reported precursors, multiple glycosides were found in Riesling wine made from grapes grown under different light regimes which represent promising candidates likely to contribute to the formation of TDN. The results demonstrate that the combined HPLC-MS methods are effective for confirming and significantly expanding the
knowledge about the precursor pools involved in the formation of potential aroma compounds in wine. At the same time, this analytical strategy can help to develop a greater understanding of the environmental influences that can drive the formation of individual flavour precursors.


Publication date: June 23, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Article


Grebneva Yevgeniya1, Herderich Markus¹, Rauhut Doris², Nicolotti Luca1 and Hixson Josh¹

¹The Australian Wine Research Institute
²Hochschule Geisenheim University

Contact the author


Non-targeted analysis, aroma precursors, C13-norisoprenoids, glycosides, Riesling


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Effect of rootstock and preplant fumigation on plant parasitic nematode development in Washington wine grapes

In Washington State, the majority of winegrape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards are planted to their own roots. This practice is possible due to the lack of established phylloxera populations, and is preferred due to the ease of retraining after damaging winter cold events. However, own-rooted V. vinifera is generally susceptible to most plant parasitic nematodes that attack grape. In Washington State, management of nematodes is dominated by preplant soil fumigation. One practice that may mitigate economic loss due to nematodes is the adoption of nematode-“resistant” rootstocks.

A worldwide perspective on viticultural zoning

Cet article répertorie les intérêts et problèmes du zonage viticole dans une perspective mondiale. Le zonage est un besoin pour chacun des vignobles mondiaux où il correspond à des applications, définitions et approches variées. Les objectifs du zonage changent de concert avec les besoins du marché mondial du vin, qui ne cesse de croître.

A research agenda for terroir: an empirical, international expert study

Aim: Terroir is a French concept relating the qualities and quality of agricultural products to their physical and socio-cultural place of origin. It is increasingly used by business and policymakers as a marketing technique to provide economic benefits (e.g. Lenglet, 2014; Wine Australia, 2015), and to potentially preserve cultural heritage (e.g. Bauer, 2009) and the environment (e.g. Bowen, 2010)

Impact of oenological tannins on microvinifications affected by downy mildew

AIM: Vine diseases are still responsible for economic losses. Previous study in our laboratory, have shown effects of oenological tannins against Botrytis cinerea1,2. According to this, the aim was to evaluate the wine protection by oenological tannins against an another disease, the downy mildew. METHODS: During the 2020 vintage, infected grapes by downy mildew (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot) were collected from the dispositive ResIntBio. The 100 kg were crushed, destemmed and dispatch into 10 aluminium tanks. SO2 was added at 3 g/hL. Oenological tannins (grape, quebracho, ellagitannin or gallotannin) were added at 100 g/hL into eight different tanks (4×2 tanks). The two last tanks were considered as control without addition of oenological tannins. Alcoholic fermentation was achieved with Actiflore 33® at 20 g/hL. Malolactic fermentation was achieved with Lactoenos B7at 1 g/hL. Finished wines were sulfited to obtain 45 mg/L of total SO2.


Aging wine on lees is a consolidated practice during which some yeast components (e.g., polysaccharides,
proteins, peptides) are released and solubilized in wine thus, affecting its stability and quality.
Apart from the widely studied mannoproteins, the role of other yeast components in modulating wine
characteristics is still scarce. Wine peptides have been studied for their contribution to taste, antioxidant,
and antihypertensive potentials. However, the peptides detected in wine can be influenced by the
interaction between yeasts and grape components.