IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Effect of terroir and winemaking protocol on the chemical and sensory profiles of Pinot Blanc wine

Effect of terroir and winemaking protocol on the chemical and sensory profiles of Pinot Blanc wine


Wine research in the past years has mainly been focused on laboratory scale due to the possibility of controlling winemaking variables. Conversely, studies on wine quality in relation to the winemaking variables at the winery scale may be able to better account for the actual challenges encountered during wine production. Winemaking problems are recently arising from progressive changes in environmental conditions in relation to the terroir. It is important to realize that each wine region may have specific winemaking protocols and that winemakers often base their decisions on subjective, emotional, and empirical opinions. Due to all the above-mentioned issues, taking the correct decision in winemaking to achieve the desired goals may become even more challenging. Hence, comprehensive analytical and sensory tools could provide substantial support for winemakers to base their decisions on data obtained from validated methodologies throughout the winemaking process. This report presents an example of a collaboration study on a winery-scale production of Pinot Blanc which has become an important production in South Tyrol (Italy) over the last decades, with its cultivation covering 10.3% of the total vineyards (www.altoadigewines.com). The main objective of the present project is to build a fingerprint database for wine identity (chemical and sensory data of Pinot Blanc in that area) to understand how terroir and winemaking practices are influencing the analytical and sensory/hedonic qualities of this wine, and to provide guidelines to winemakers accordingly to aid their decisions. 

The experimental plan for this study included factors such as (I) vineyard location, (II) pre-fermentation freezing of the grapes, and (III) simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentations The samples were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for the determination of the phenolic compounds and by HS-SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS for determining the volatile profiles. The sensory analysis was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA ®) (Poggesi et al., 2021). The application of whole grape freezing in pre-processing turned out to be the main differentiating factor of the wines. The results also showed a strong dependence of the measured parameters on the vineyard which could be classified according to significantly different relative abundances of phenolic and volatile compounds. No difference was observed in the phenolic profile as a function of co-inoculation with malolactic bacteria. On the other hand, specific volatile compounds could differentiate samples undergoing simultaneous alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. The chemical results were then integrated with sensory data to create multivariate models, to show how the factors played out on the final quality of the wine obtained. Prospectively, fingerprint databases can be built on these models for authenticity purposes and to assist the winemaker during production.


• Alto Adige Wine – Exquisite Wines from Northern Italy (altoadigewines.com)
• Poggesi, S., Dupas de Matos, A., Longo, E., Chiotti, D., Pedri, U., Eisenstecken, D., & Boselli, E. (2021). Chemosensory Profile of South Tyrolean Pinot Blanc Wines: A Multivariate Regression Approach. Molecules, 26(20), 6245. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206245
• Philipp, C., Eder, P., Sari, S., Hussain, N., Patzl-Fischerleitner, E., & Eder, R. (2020). Aromatypicity of Austrian Pinot Blanc Wines. Molecules, 25(23), 5705. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235705
• Philipp, C., Eder, P., Brandes, W., Patzl-Fischerleitner, E., & Eder, R. (2018). The pear aroma in the Austrian Pinot blanc wine variety: evaluation by means of sensorial-analytical-typograms with regard to vintage, wine styles, and origin of wines. Journal of Food Quality, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5123280


Publication date: June 27, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster


Darnal Aakriti1, Poggessi Simone1, Merkyte Vakare1, Longo Edoardo1, Montali Marco2 and Boselli Emanuele1

1Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano
2Faculty of Computer Science, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano

Contact the author


Pinot Blanc, wine identity, QDA, volatile profiles


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Typicality related to terroir: from conceptual to perceptual representation: study of the links with enological practices

The conceptual image of a wine related to the terroir has consequences in technical terms. Among factors affecting the typicality, producers put forward the environmental factors of the terroir system

Aroma profile of Tempranillo tropical red wines from different seasons in the São Francisco valley, northeast of Brazil

Aromatic characteristics of wines are strongly influenced by agronomical and enological factors, depending of the climate, cultivar and winemaking process. Tropical wines are a new concept of vitiviniculture that is being developped in the Northeast of Brazil since the 80’s, located between 8-9º latitude of the South Hemisphere, where the second most important cultivar used for reds is Tempranillo. In this condition, vines produce grapes and enologists elaborate wines twice a year, because high temperatures, solar radiation and water availability for irrigation.

Grape metabolites, aroma precursors and the complexities of wine flavour

A critical aspect of wine quality from a consumer perspective is the overall impression of wine flavour, which is formed by the interplay of volatile aroma compounds, their precursors, and taste and matrix components. Grapes contribute some potent aroma compounds, together with a large pool of non-volatile precursors (e.g. glycoconjugates and amino acid conjugates). Aroma precursors can break down through chemical hydrolysis reactions, or through the action of yeast or enzymes, significantly changing the aroma profile of a wine during winemaking and storage. In addition, glycoconjugates of monoterpenes, norisoprenoids and volatile phenols, together with sulfur-conjugates in wine, provide a reservoir of additional flavour through the in-mouth release of volatiles which may be perceived retro-nasally.

Greek and Cypriot grape varieties as a sustainable solution to mitigate climate change

Aim: The aim of this report is to present evidence on the potential of Greek and Cypriot grape varieties to serve as a sustainable solution to mitigate climate change.

Methods and Results: The work provides a review of recent works involving Greek and Cypriot varieties’ performance under high temperatures and increased dryness.

Late frost protection in Champagne

Probably one of the most counterintuitive impacts of climate change on vine is the increased frequency of late frost. Champagne, due to its septentrional position is historically and regularly affected by this meteorological hazard. Champagne has therefore developed a strong experience in frost protection with first experiments dating from the end of 19th century. Frost protection can be divided in two parts: passive and active. Passive protection includes all the methods that do not seek to modify the vine’s environment or resistance at the time of frost. The most iconic passive protection in Champagne is the establishment of the individual reserve. This reserve allows to stock a certain quantity of clear wine during a surplus year to compensate a meteorological hazard like frost during the following years. Other common passive methods are the control of planting area (walls, bushes, topography), the choice of grape variety, late pruning, or the impact of grass cover and tillage. Active frost protection is also divided in two parts. Most of the existing techniques tend to modify vine’s environment. Most of the time they provide warmth (candles, heaters, windmills, heating cables…), or stabilise bud’s temperature above a lethal threshold (water sprinkling). The other way to actively fight is to enhance the resistance of buds to frost (elicitors). The Comité Champagne evaluates frost protection methods following three main axes: the efficiency, the profitability, and the environmental impact through a lifecycle assessment. This study will present the results on both passive and active protection following these three axes.