Monitoring gas-phase CO2 in the headspace of champagne glasses through diode laser spectrometry

During Champagne or sparkling wine tasting, gas-phase CO2 and volatile organic compounds invade the headspace above glasses [1], thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Gas-phase CO2 in excess can even cause a very unpleasant tingling sensation perturbing both ortho- and retronasal olfactory perception [2]. Monitoring as accurately as possible the level of gas-phase CO2 above glasses is therefore a challenge of importance aimed at better understanding the close relationship between the release of CO2 and a collection of various tasting parameters. 

Based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), a diode laser spectrometer (namely, the CO2-DLS) dedicated to monitor gas-phase CO2 in the headspace of champagne glasses was developed [3,4]. The concentration of gas-phase CO2 found in the headspace of champagne glasses served under multivariate conditions was accurately monitored, all along the first 10 minutes following the action of pouring. Our results show the strong impact of various tasting conditions (such as the volume of wine dispensed, the glass shape, the wine temperature, or the level of effervescence, for example) on the release of gas-phase CO2 above the champagne surface. Moreover, a recent upgrading of the CO2-DLS allowed us to evidence that the concentration of gas-phase CO2 in the headspace of a champagne glass is far from being homogeneous in either space or time, with much higher gas-phase CO2 concentrations close to the wine interface. 

[1] G. Liger-Belair, Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: From grape harvest to bubble rise, Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 226 (2017) 3–116. 
[2] L. Hewson, T. Hollowood, S. Chandra, and J. Hort. Gustatory, olfactory and trigeminal interactions in a model carbonated beverage. Chemosensory Perception, 2 (2009) 94–107. 
[3] A.-L. Moriaux, R. Vallon, C. Cilindre, B. Parvitte, G. Liger-Belair, V. Zeninari, Development and validation of a diode laser sensor for gas-phase CO2 monitoring above champagne and sparkling wines, Sensors Actuators B Chem. 257 (2018) 745–752. 
[4] A.-L. Moriaux, R. Vallon, B. Parvitte, V. Zeninari, G. Liger-Belair, C. Cilindre, Monitoring gas-phase CO2 in the headspace of champagne glasses through combined diode laser spectrometry and micro-gas chromatography analysis, Food Chem. 264 (2018) 255–262.

Authors: Anne-Laure Moriaux (1), Raphaël Vallon (1), Bertrand Parvitte (1), Virginie Zeninari (1), Guillaume Roffiaen (2), Laurent Panigai (2), Gérard Liger-Belair (1), Clara Cilindre (1) 

(1) Equipe Effervescence, Champagne et Applications (GSMA – UMR CNRS 7331), Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, BP 1039, Reims, France. 
(2) Centre Vinicole – Champagne Nicolas Feuillatte, Chouilly, BP210, Epernay, France. 

Email: anne-laure.moriaux@univ-reims.fr 

Keywords: Champagne, CO2, Diode laser spectrometry, Tasting conditions 

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