Conventional vineyard practices have lead in many environmental disturbances as erosion, soil compaction, loss of organic matter and soil biodiversity, water contamination… Therefore, there is an increasing interest to develop sustainable viticulture in the famous Champagne vineyard for 20 years: a program called “VITI 2000” has been developed since 1986 by CIVC (Inter-professional Committee of Champagne Wine) in collaboration with scientists. The aims are i) to assess the impact of viticultural practices on soil functioning, environmental properties and wine quality, ii) to advice progressively sustainable practices to winegrowers. One strength of this program is to allow a long term field experiment: earthworm communities, microbial biomass, soil and vine parameters were followed during 25 years in 19 plots representing 66 treatments to test the impact of pesticides applications (nematicides, fungicides, herbicides), or organic matter inputs, or vine management (organic vs conventional vs integrated). This program ended in a huge data collection e.g. the data table of earthworm communities (species, body mass, sexual stage) presents more than 39 000 lines. A database, compatible to others soil fauna databases developed by the laboratory EcoBio (University Rennes 1), has been developed. First results indicate that i) grass strip between the vine rows and compost quickly stimulate biological soil processes, while dried organic matter inputs have a slow positive impact, ii) fungicides containing copper alter in the same pattern earthworms and microorganisms, iii) integrated management could be as positive as organic practices. Statistical treatments are still going on and further results will be discussed.
Authors: Guénola PERES (1), Raphaël MARICHAL (1), Rémi CHAUSSOD (2), Rachida NOUAIM (3), Arnaud DESCOTES (4), Cédric GEORGET (4), Dominique MONTCOMBLE (4), André PERRAUD (4), Antoine DEWISME (1), Daniel CLUZEAU (1)
(1) Université Rennes 1, UMR 6553 Ecobio CNRS-Univ Rennes 1, Station Biologique de Paimpont, 35380 Paimpont, France.
(2) Inra Dijon, UMR microbiologie du sol et de l’environnement, 17 rue Sully BP 86510, 21065 Dijon cedex, France.
(3) SEMSE – Services & Études en Microbiologie des Sols et de l’Environnement, Viévigne, France.
(4) CIVC- Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne, 5 rue Henri Martin 51200 Epernay, France.
Keywords: vineyard, organic matter inputs, earthworm communities, microbial biomass