Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Macrowine 9 Macrowine 2021 9 Grapevine diversity and viticultural practices for sustainable grape growing 9 Measurement of trans-membrane and trans-tissue voltages in the Shiraz berry mesocarp

Measurement of trans-membrane and trans-tissue voltages in the Shiraz berry mesocarp

Abstract

AIM: In mid to late ripening, sugar and potassium (K+) accumulation into the berry slows and is eventually completed1. K+ is the most abundant cation in the berry, undertaking important physiological roles. During late ripening, Shiraz mesocarp cells die within the central region of the berry. The cessation of K+ import may be a contributing factor to this loss in cell vitality. Many K+ trans-membrane transporters and channels are regulated by the membrane voltage (Vm). We thus measured trans-membrane voltage (Vm) and trans-tissue voltages (Vt) in the mesocarp during Shiraz berry development.

METHODS: Vm measurement Shiraz berries, grown in Coombe vineyard at the University of Adelaide, were sampled weekly from the completion of véraison to the late-ripening stage. To assess Vm, the microelectrode was inserted through the berry skin and into mesocarp. During injection, voltage signals and the corresponding depths of the micropipette tip were recorded. Vt measurement The Vt was measured by a similar method described above without micropipette injection. A small piece of skin was removed, allowing the measurement of Vt from the pedicel to the mesocarp surface. Living berries and dead berries from véraison and late-ripening stage were used. Dead berries were measured after freezing overnight followed by thawing.

RESULTS: Vm The voltages became less negative with increasing tissue depth. This may be attributed to the more severe hypoxia within deeper regions of the berry2. Voltage responses were detected in both living berries and dead berries in the late-ripening stage, with similar profiles. This indicates that other structures or factors contributed to the voltage detected by this method. Vt In living berries, the Vt values were more negative in véraison berries than those in late-ripening berries. This trend was not observed in dead berries. There was no significant difference between the Vt values measured from living berries and dead berries in late-ripening stage.

CONCLUSIONS

The uneven distribution of the Vm between berry compartments may be correlated with oxygen concentration, which could impact on K+ transport within berries. The declined Vm and Vt in the late ripening berries could be associated with the cessation of K+ import into berries.

DOI:

Publication date: September 2, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article

Authors

Yin Liu 

National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia,Suzy ROGIERS (New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia) Leigh SCHMIDTKE (National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia) Stephen TYERMAN (School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, PMB1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia)

Contact the author

Keywords

grape berry ripening, microelectrode, voltage, mesocarp

Citation

Related articles…

Development of a GRASS-GIS application for the characterization of vineyards in the province of Trento

The physical factors that influence the grape ripening include elevation, slope, aspect, potential global radiation, sun hours and soil type of the vineyards.

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENOLOGICAL OAK TANNIN EXTRACTS BY MULTI-ANALYTICAL METHODS APPROACH

Oak tannin extracts are commonly used to improve wine properties. The main polyphenols found in oak wood extracts are ellagitannins¹ that release ellagic acid upon hydrolysis and comprise numerous structures². Moreover, oak tannin extracts contain other compounds giving a complex mixture. Consequently, the official OIV method based on gravimetric analysis of the tannin fraction adsorbed on polyvinylpolypyrrolidone is not sufficient to describe their composition and highlight their chemical diversity.

A Viticultural Terroir in Brazil: Change and continuity

The viticultural terroir at the Serra Gaúcha region, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is analyzed under historical and sociological viewpoints, aiming to understand the origin of its characteristics, and the risks for its continuity.

Effect of soil type on Sauvignon blanc and Cabernet-Sauvignon wine style at different localities in South Africa

The wine producing regions of South Africa are characterized by climatic diversity. The Coastal Region has a Mediterranean climate, with a mean annual rainfall of c.

Effect of fertigation strategies to adapt PGI Côtes de Gascogne production to hot vintage

The development of fertigation could be a possible solution to adapt PGI Côtes de Gascogne (south-western France) wine production to climate change. The goal would be to limit the negative effects of water stress on yield performance expectation (around 15 tons per hectare) and to make the use of fertilizers more efficient. This study aimed to compare the effects of three strategies of water and minerals supply on grapes and wines qualities. Two fertigation practices were compared to a rainfed control which is the current standard of the local grape growing production. The fertilizers (nitrogen and potassium) were (i) fully brought by irrigation pipe during the season, (ii) partially brought by irrigation pipe and partially on the soil or (iii) fully brought on the soil at the beginning of the season for the non-irrigated control (local standard). The trial was run on cv. Colombard trained on spur pruned with vertical shoot positioning system on a sandy-silty-clay soil over the 2020 vintage which was particularly hot for the region. Moderate to strong water deficit appeared during the growing period of the berries and held on after veraison. Irrigation strategies allowed for maintaining grapevine without water deficit and being significantly different from the control water status. Grapevine with fully or partial fertigation strategies produced 25% more yield mainly due to the increase of the bunch weight. Also, the fully fertigation showed the best ratio between yield and maturity and brought 30% less of fertilizers (both nitrogen and potassium) than the two other strategies. Finally, the analysis of aromatic compounds in Colombard wines, varietal thiols family, showed the same level of concentrations for the 3 treatments, confirming that the yield performance did not impact the aromatic potential in this trial.