In the oenological industry, the maintenance and sanitation of oak barrels has become a fundamental task. The wood has a porous structure that facilitates the penetration not only of the wine, but of the microorganisms it contains, such as the alterative yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis.
Insufficient acidity in grapes from warm(ing) climates is commonly corrected through addition of tartaric acid during vinification, and less so with other organic acids. One alternative approach involves bio-acidification with certain strains of Lachancea thermotolerans (LT) via lactic acid production during fermentation.
Aging on lees (AOL) is a powerful technique to protect varietal aroma and color. Simultaneously, helps to soften tannins and increase and improve wine body and structure. AOL is complementary to barrel aging modulating the wood impact and protecting wine from oxidative conditions.
The use of oenological tannins is authorized for many years by the OIV and advised for color stabilization. For this reason, winemakers look for a better understanding of tannins/anthocyanins interactions to produce deeply colored wines with great color stability during aging.