According to the last IPCC report, the scale of recent climate changes are unprecedented over many centuries. Each of the last four decades has been successively warmer than any decade since 1850. Projections for the future foresee that temperature could reach +3.3°C to +5.7°C under the most pessimistic scenario. It is also projected that every region will face more concurrent and multiple changes in climatic impact-drivers. The frequency of extreme climate events is also likely to increase, as well as the occurrence of indirect constraints. These evolving climatic conditions are alrealdy affecting and will continue to affect the suitability of traditional wine grape production areas, but also create opportunities in new locations.
Sessions 1, 2 and 3: Adaptation to climate change
Projected impacts of climate change on viticulture over France wine-regions using downscalled CMIP6 multi-model data
Winegrape is a crop for which the quality and the identity of the final product depends strongly on the
climatic conditions of the year. By impacting production systems and the way in which wines are
developed, climate change represents a major challenge for the wine industry (Ollat et al., 2021).
In viticulture, climate change significantly impacts the plant’s development and the quality and characteristics of wines. These variations are often observed over short distances in a wine-growing region and are linked to local features (slope, soil, seasonal climate, etc.). The high spatial variability of climate caused by local factors is often of the same order or even higher than the temperature increase simulated by the different IPCC scenarios.
Vineyard altitude as a climate change adaptation strategy and its effect on Riesling during grapes and wine composition during ripening
Climate is one of the main drivers of spatial and temporal variability in grapevine physiology and therefore a key determinant of grape composition and final wine value. The world has warmed 1.1 °C since pre-industrial times, and the latest IPCC report indicates an additional 0.5 to 1.3 °C of warming by mid-century with continental locations warming at a greater rate than the oceans.
Phenology scales widely adopted by viticulturists (i.e., BBCH or modified E-L systems) are classification tools that describe seasonal and precisely recognized stages of fruit growth and development based on specific descriptors such as visual/physical traits or easy-to-measure compositional parameters.
Understanding the impact of climate change on anthocyanin concentrations in Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon
Climate change is having a significant impact on the wine industry through more regular drought conditions, fires, and heat events, leading to crop loss. Furthermore, these events can reduce overall quality of the fruit, even when crop yields are not impacted. Anthocyanins are considered one of the most important classes of compounds for red wine production and are known to be sensitive to vine water status and heat events.
Grape ripening is a critical phenophase during which many metabolites driving wine quality are accumulated in berries. Major changes in berry composition include a rapid increase in sugar and a decrease in malic acid content and concentration. Its duration is highly variable depending on grapevine variety, climatic parameters, soil type and management practices.
The impact of delayed grapevine budbreak on lemberger wine sensory compounds under variable weather conditions
Spring freeze events threaten grape production globally. As grape buds emerge from dormancy in spring, freezing temperatures have the potential to damage green tissues, decreasing yield potential and compromising fruit quality by harvest.
Management of water status in vineyards: meta-analysis of its effects on yield and grape composition
Mediterranean vineyards have been traditionally grown under rainfed conditions, but in recent decades the irrigated area has increased significantly, seeking to minimize the adverse effects of severe water stress on grape quality and yield. Given the large area occupied by vineyards, and the increasing scarcity of water resources, it is necessary to develop strategies for the optimization and efficient use of water to reduce the risk of its overexploitation. The present study aims at valorizing previous knowledge generated in different research projects by means of a meta-analysis of the effects of water status management on vineyard performance.
Physiological responses of crimson seedless (Vitis vinifera) grapevines to altered micro climatic conditions and different water treatments in the Breede River Valley of South Africa
Challenging conditions created by limited water supply and changes in the climate require an understanding of the physiological status of table grapes along the whole value chain. This is critical to develop tools for regulatory management of growth balances and grape quality. This study aimed to determine the impact of different amounts of water and an altered micro-climate (complete covering of vineyards with plastic) on the physiological reaction of the grapevine during the growth season.
Re-examination and meta-analysis of previous research as a tool to evaluate the suitability of rootstocks in adaptation to global change. A study case from Spanish viticulture
Meta-analysis (MA) is a method that allows statistical synthesis of the results of several similar individual studies (Figure 1). This term was introduced by Glass in 1976 as a useful tool for the scientific community to pool and summarise the enormous amount of information collected in the literature.
Climate change results in erratic weather conditions, which may lead for many crops including grapevine, to a reduced production and products of lower quality. Concerning grapevine, climate change results in shorter growing seasons and dates for budbreak, flowering and fruit maturity occur earlier in many regions. It also leads to an increase of various pests and diseases, as well as the vectors responsible for disease distribution.
Comparison of genotype x environment interaction of clonal and polyclonal grapevine selected materials
Conserving and exploring the intra-varietal diversity of ancient varieties is essential to foster their use in the future, preserving the traditions and history of ancient growing regions and their wines. The conservation of representative samples of ancient varieties and the utilization of intra-varietal variability through polyclonal selection are advisable strategies to save and promote the cultivation of each variety, respectively.
Drought tolerance of varieties in semi-arid areas: can the behavior of Tempranillo be improved by varieties of its own lineage?
Tempranillo is the most widely grown red grapevine variety in Spain, currently representing 42% of the total number of red varieties and 21% of the total vineyard area. Due to the economic importance that this variety represents in Spanish viticulture, in some areas where it is traditionally grown, there is a special concern about the viability of the future growing of this variety is being compromised by the climate change effects.
Merlot grapevine is the second wine cultivar most planted in the world and especially in the Bordeaux wine region. This cultivar has many advantages in producing high quality wine; however, in the last decade, climate change has increased the sugar concentration in berries at harvest and shortened the maturation cycle. If this has been up to now a great opportunity to improve wine quality profile, we are touching the tipping point. High sugar concentration at harvest induces high alcool content in wine which can negatively impact wine quality. There are many viticultural and oenological practices possible to limit this effect. In this study we focus on plant material through intra-varietal diversity of Merlot cultivar.