Sparkling wine (SW) production entails a two-steps process where grape must undergoes a primary fermentation to produce a base wine (BW) which is then refermented to become a SW. This process allows for the development of a new physicochemical profile characterized by the presence of foam and a different organoleptic profile.
In Ancient Egypt, wine was a luxury product consumed mainly by the upper classes and the royal family and offered to gods in daily religious rituals in the temples.
Since the Predynastic (4000-3100 BC) period, wine jars were placed in tombs as funerary offerings. From the Old Kingdom (2680-2160 BC) to the Greco-Roman (332 BC-395 AD) period, viticulture and winemaking scenes were depicted on the private tombs’ walls. During the New Kingdom (1539-1075 BC), wine jars were inscribed to indicate: vintage year, product, quality, provenance, property and winemaker’s name and title.
SO2 play a major role in wine stability and evolution during its aging and storage. Winemaking without SO2 is a big challenge for the winemakers since the lack of SO2 affects directly the wine chemical evolution such as the aromas compounds as well as the phenolic compounds. During the red wine aging, phenolic compounds such as anthocyanin, responsible of the red wine colour, and tannins, responsible of the mouthfeel organoleptic properties of wine, evolved quickly from the winemaking process to aging . A lot of new interaction and molecules occurred lead by oxygen thus the lack of SO2 will induce wine properties changes. Nowadays, the phenolic composition of the wine without added SO2 have not been clearly reported.
Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization (UHPH) is a high-pressure pumping at 300 MPa (>200 MPa) with a subsequent depressurization against a highly resistant valve made of tungsten carbide covered by ceramic materials or carbon nanoparticles. The intense impact and shear efforts produce the nano-fragmentation of colloidal biopolymers including the elimination of microorganism (pasteurization or sterilization depending on in-valve temperature) and the inactivation of enzymes.