IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Macrowine 9 Macrowine 2016 9 Category: Oral - Process

Oral – Process

IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

Development and validation of a standardized oxidation assay for the accurate measurement of the ability of different wines to form “de novo” oxidation-related aldehydes

From the standpoint of wine aroma oxidation there are two effects observed: aroma degradation of oxygen sensitive compounds (polyfunctional mercaptans) and the appearance of new substances with high aromatic power (acetaldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, sotolon, alkenals, isobutanal and 2, 3-metylbutanals) (1-5). According to our experience, Strecker aldehydes are compounds with highest sensory relevance in the oxidative degradation of many wines (5-7).

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

Dissecting the polysaccharide‐rich grape cell wall matrix during the red winemaking process, using high‐throughput and fractionation methods

Limited information is available on grape wall-derived polymeric structure/composition and how this changes during fermentation. Commercial winemaking operations use enzymes that target the polysaccharide-rich polymers of the cell walls of grape tissues to clarify musts and extract pigments during the fermentations. In this study we have assessed changes in polysaccharide composition/ turnover throughout the winemaking process by applying recently developed cell wall profiling approaches to both wine and pomace polysaccharides. The methods included gas chromatography for monosaccharide composition (GC-MS), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling
(CoMPP) using cell wall probes.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

Efficiency of alternative chemical and physical treatments in reducing Brettanomyces Bruxellensis from oak wood

Oak barrels form an integral part of wine production, especially that of high quality wines. However, due to its porosity, wood presents an ecological niche for microbial proliferation and is highly susceptible to microbial spoilage which could cause considerable economic losses. Brettanomyces bruxellensis, the most commonly encountered microorganism responsible for spoilage during barrel ageing, can remain in barrels after barrel sanitation to contaminate new batches of wine after refilling. Therefore, effective sanitation treatments are of utmost importance to prevent recurring wine spoilage.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

Extraction of pathogenesis-related proteins and phenolics in Sauvignon Blanc as affected by different

The composition of wine is largely determined by the composition of pre-fermentation juice, which is influenced by extraction of grape components. Different grape harvesting and processing conditions could affect the extraction of grape components into juice. Among these grape components, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are of great concern for white wine maker as they are the main cause of haze formation in finished white wine. If not removed before bottling, these PR proteins may progress into haze through the formation of complex with phenolics under certain conditions. Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs) and chitinases are the main constituents of PR proteins found in protein haze.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

How small amounts of oxygen introduced during bottling and storage can influence the metabolic fingerprint and SO2 content of white wines

The impact of minute amounts of headspace oxygen on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen, packaging and storage conditions can either damage or improve wine quality. This is reflected in the generalised use of inert bottling lines, where the headspace between the white wine and the stopper is filled with an inert gas. This experiment aimed to address some open questions about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen, crucial for decisions regarding optimal closure. While it is known that similar amounts of oxygen affect different wines to a variable extent, our knowledge of chemistry is not sufficient to construct a predictive method.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

Impact of varying ethanol and carbonation levels on the odor threshold of 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphtalene (petrol off-flavor) and role of berry size and Riesling clones

1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphtelene (TDN) evokes the odor of "petrol" in wine, especially in the variety Riesling. Increasing UV-radiation due to climate change intensifies formation of carotenoids in the berry skins and an increase of TDN-precursors1. Exploring new viticultural and oenological strategies to limit TDN formation in the future requires precise knowledge of TDN thresholds in different matrices. Thresholds reported in the literature vary substantially between 2 µg/L up to 20 µg/L2,3,4 due to the use of different methods. As Riesling grapes are used for very different wine styles such as dry, sweet or sparkling wines, it is essential to study the impact of varying ethanol and carbonation levels.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

Interactions of wine polyphenols with dead or living Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Cells and Cell Walls: polyphenol location by microscopy

Tannin, anthocyanins and their reaction products play a major role in the quality of red wines. They contribute to their sensory characteristics, particularly colour and astringency. Grape tannins and anthocyanins are extracted during red wine fermentation. However, their concentration and composition change over time, due to their strong chemical reactivity1. It is also well known that yeasts influence the wine phenolic content, either through the release of metabolites involved in the formation of derived pigments1, or through polyphenol adsorption2,3.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

New molecular evidence of wine yeast-bacteria interaction unraveled by untargeted metabolomic profiling

Bacterial malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a considerable impact on wine quality. The yeast strain used for primary fermentation can consistently stimulate (MLF+ phenotype) or inhibit (MLF- phenotype) malolactic bacteria and the MLF process as a function of numerous winemaking practices, but the molecular evidence behind still remains a mystery. In this study, such evidence was elucidated by the direct comparison of extracellular metabolic profiles of MLF+ and MLF- yeast phenotypes. Untargeted metabolomics combining ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR-MS analysis, powerful machine learning methods and a comprehensive wine metabolite database, discovered around 800 putative biomarkers and 2500 unknown masses involved in phenotypic distinction.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

Nitrogen – Lipid Balance in alcoholic fermentations. Example of Champagne musts

Nutrient availability - nitrogen, lipids, vitamins or oxygen - has a major impact on the kinetics of winemaking fermentations. Nitrogen is usually the growth-limiting nutrient and its availability determines the fermentation rate, and therefore the fermentation duration. In some cases, in particular in Champagne, grape musts have high nitrogen concentrations and are sometimes clarified with turbidity below 50 NTU. In these conditions, lipid deficiencies may occur and longer fermentations can be observed. To better understand this situation, a study was realized using a synthetic medium simulating the composition of a Champagne must : 180 g/L of sugar, 360 mg/L of assimilable nitrogen and a lipid content ranging from 1 to 8 mg/L of phytosterols (mainly β-sitosterol).

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

The impact of branched chain and aromatic amino acids on fermentation kinetics and aroma biosynthesis by wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

One of the major determinants of wine quality is the aroma. Wine aroma is the human perception of the matrix of grape and yeast derived volatiles and their interaction that contribute to flavour wine. Most common are higher alcohols, ester and aldehydes. In previous studies the formation of characteristic volatile compounds have been linked to the metabolism of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids
(BCAAs) in synthetic grape must. Here we report on an investigation to assess the impact of the initial amino acid concentration on the production of aroma compounds by the industrial yeast VIN13 grown in both synthetic and real grape musts.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowineMacrowine 2016Oral - Process

Use of computational modelling for selecting adsorbents for improved fining of wine

The occurrence of faults and taints in wine, such as those caused by microbial spoilage or various taints, have resulted in significant financial losses to wine producers. The wine industry commits significant financial resources towards fining and taint removal processes each year. Fining involves the addition of one or more adsorptive substrates to juice or wine to bind certain components, thus reducing their concentration [1]. However, these processes are often not selective and can also remove desirable flavour and aroma compounds.

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