IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Macrowine 9 Macrowine 2021 9 Category: Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

LC-MS based metabolomics discriminates premium from varietal chilean Cabernet Sauvignon cv. Wines

Aim of the study was to investigate the metabolomic differences between Chilean Cabernet Sauvignon wines, divided according to their quality in two main groups: “Varietal” and “Premium”, and to point out metabolites tentative markers of their chemical signature and sensorial quality. Initially, 150 (50 x 3 biological replicates) experimental wines were produced by the same semi-industrial process, which covered 8 different Chilean valleys. The wine classification made by experts, divided the wines into two major groups (“Varietal” and “Premium”) and four subgroups (two for each major group). All the samples were analyzed according to a robust LC-MS based untargeted work-flow (Arapitsas et al 2018), and the proposed minimum reporting standards for chemical analysis of the Metabolomics Standards Initiative (Sumner et al 2007)

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Mouthfeel effects due to oligosaccharides within a wine matrix

The mouthfeel of wine is one of the most important aspects of the organoleptic experience of tasting wine. In wine a great deal is known about certain compositional components and how they impact mouthfeel perception, such as phenolics. But there are other components where little is understood, such as oligosaccharides. Saccharides in general are found in very low concentrations with wine, especially compared to conventional foods. There is very little information about how oligosaccharides influence the mouthfeel perception of wine.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Occurrence of methyl salicylate in lugana wines: aroma impact and biogenesis 

AIM Methyl salicylate (MeSA) has been reported as a potentially impactful compound in Verdicchio wines produced in central Italy. Lugana is another white wine produced in the north-east of Italy from a grape locally known as Trebbiano di Soave, sharing a very similar genetic background with Verdicchio. The aims of this study were evaluating MeSA occurrence in Lugana, assessing its aroma impact on white wines aroma and elucidating its biogenesis during vinification. METHODS Fifteen Lugana wines were analysed for methyl salycilate content in comparison with Verdicchio, Pinot grigio and Garganega wines. MeSA impact on white wine aroma was studied by means of triangular test, adding MeSA at different concentrations. Possible routes of MeSA formation by yeast were investigated by means of a high throughput assay in which S. cerevisiae cells were put in contact with precursor such as salicylic acid (esterification) or glycosidic extracts (glycosidase). Sub-fractions of Lugana glycosidic extracts were also obtained by HPLC fractionation, allowing further evaluation of precursors role.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Oenological potential of indigenous greek grape varieties and their clones

Vine clone selection aims at the survival of clones with particularly desireable attributes for the production of high quality wines. The purpose of this research was to study the enological potential of the clones of Greek indigenous grape varieties over two vintages, 2018 and 2019.
METHODS: Two clones of the white grape varieties Moschofilero (E26 and E27), Assyrtiko (E11 and 16), Roditis (25E16 and 02E1E21) and two clones of the red grape varieties Xinomavro (19 and E2E30) and Agiorgitiko (03E40 and 41E47) were vinified under the same protocol for the white wines and common for the red wines in 2018 and 2019. The resulting products were studied for several enological parameters such as alcohol content, volatile acidity, pH, total phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins for the red wines, as well as browning tests for the white wines. The aroma profile of these ten samples was investigated through sensory analysis with intensity rating of individual attributes on a five-point scale by a trained panel.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Olfactometric and sensory study of red wines subjected to ultrasound or microwaves during their elaboration

The effect that some extraction techniques, such as ultrasound (Cacciola, Batllò, Ferraretto, Vincenzi, & Celotti, 2013; Povey & McClements, 1988) or microwaves (Carew, Close, & Dambergs, 2015; Carew, Gill, Close, & Dambergs, 2014) produce on the aroma of red wines, when applied to processes of extractive nature, such as pre-fermentative maceration or ageing with oak chips (Spanish oak – Quercus pyrenaica and French oak – Quercus robur) has been studied. The volatile profile was determined by means of gas chromatography coupled with olfactometric and mass spectrometric detection. A sensory analysis was also carried out. No indications were found to show that the pre-fermentative treatment with microwaves or ultrasound modified the sensory profile of the wines whereas the application of such energies during the ageing phase showed some positive trends at sensory level.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Prediction of astringency in red wine using tribology approach to study in-mouth perception

AIM Astringency is described as a ‘dry puckering‐like sensation’ following consumption of tannins1 that affect consumer preference of foods and beverages, including red wine2. To improve the understanding of astringency, which is a complex interaction due to multiple mechanisms occurring simultaneously, further studies are needed. In this view, oral tribology is considered a useful technique for beverage study to evaluate the thin-film lubrication properties of saliva resulting in oral friction‐related sensations3. The aim of this study was to examine the film behavior of selected protein-based fluids under controlled friction conditions, to understand polyphenol-protein interactions involved in the sensation of astringency.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Prediction of sauvignon blanc quality gradings with static headspace−gas chromatography−ion mobility spectrometry (SHS−GC−IMS) and machine learning

The main goal of the current study is the development of a cost-effective and easy-to-use method suitable for use in the laboratory of commercial wineries to analyze wine aroma. Additionally, this study attempted to establish a prediction model for wine quality gradings based on their aroma, which could reveal the important aroma compounds that correlate well with different grades of perceived quality METHODS: Parameters of the SHS−GC−IMS instrument were first optimized to acquire the most desirable chromatographic resolution and signal intensities. Method stability was then exhibited by repeatability and reproducibility. Subsequently, compound identification was conducted. After method development, a total of 143 end-ferment wine samples of three different quality gradings from vintage 2020 were analyzed with the SHS−GC−IMS instrument. Six machine learning methods were employed to process the results and construct a quality prediction model. Techniques that aim to explain the model to extract useful insights were also applied.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Red wine astringency: correlations between chemical and sensory features

Astringency is a crucial sensory attribute typically described as the drying and/or puckering sensation occurring after the consumption of tannin-rich foods and beverages. In this study, thirty-seven red wines from different varieties, origins and styles were evaluated, analyzing both chemical and sensory features. Principal Component Analysis was used for dimensionality-reduction and for correlating selected chemical parameters against astringency. The results showed that tannin content was the most important chemical parameter influencing overall astringency but more clearly the dryness sub-quality, followed by pH, titratable acidity and alcohol content.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Relationship between chemical parameters of tannins and in-mouth attributes of grape phenolic fractions

Establish relationships between taste and mouthfeel properties of grapes and tannin-related chemical parameters. Tempranillo Tinto and Garnacha Tinta grapes were harvested from distinct blocks in different dates; each sample collection date was separated by one week. Grapes were destemmed and macerated in 15% of ethanol for one week. The polyphenolic fraction (PF) of samples was submitted to solid phase extraction on C18 cartridges and recovered with ethanol. PFs were reconstituted in wine model and their taste and mouthfeel properties were characterised by rate-K-attributes methodology. In parallel, concentration (TC) and activity (TAc) of tannins as well as the concentration of tannins linked to anthocyanins (T-A) were determined using HPLC-UV–VIS.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Sensory and physicochemical impact of proanthocyanidic tannins on red wine fruity aroma

AIM: Previous research on the fruity character of red wines highlighted the role of esters [1]. Literature provides evidence that, besides these esters, other compounds that are not necessarily volatiles may have an important impact on the overall fruity aroma of wine, contributing to a masking effect [2][3]. The goal of this work was to assess the olfactory consequences of a mixture between esters and proanthocyanidic tannins, through sensory and physico-chemical approaches.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Sensory profile: a tool to characterize originality of wines produced without sulfites

A trend to reduce chemical inputs in wines exists, especially sulfur dioxide (SO2). This additive is widely used due to its antioxidant, antiseptic and antioxidasic properties. During without sulfites vinification, bioprotection by adding yeast on harvest could be a sulfites alternative. With extension of this wine market, sensory impact linked to sulfites absence and/or sulfites alternative should be evaluated. That’s what this approach proposes to do, focusing on sensory characteristics of wines produced with or without SO2 addition during the winemaking process. METHODS: Wines were elaborated from Merlot grapes of two maturity levels according to three modalities: SO2, without SO2 and bioprotection on harvest (mix of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima). SO2 modality was sulfited throughout the winemaking and aging processes whether other modalities received any addition. After two years of aging, sensory studies were carried out with a specific panel for one month. First, descriptors were generated to differentiate the wines, then panelists were trained on these specific descriptors for five sessions and finally wines sensory profiles were elaborated

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

The evaluation of tannin activity in south african red wines

Astringency is an important red wine quality attribute, which can be measured both chemically and sensorially. The use of tannin activity shows potential as a valuable chemical measurement in understanding red wine mouthfeel properties such as astringency and bitterness, which is also affected by tannin structural factors, in addition to matrix effects. Tannin activity is defined as the enthalpy of interaction between tannins and a hydrophobic surface. Studies involving tannin activity have been performed since the early 2010’s, but chemosensory studies used to evaluate how structure-activity relationships change across multiple, consecutive vintages are limited. The aim of this study is to investigate how tannin activity may be linked to red wine mouthfeel, and how all these variables may change according to wine age.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

The relationship between enzyme treatment and polysaccharide extraction in wine making, and subsequent sensory effects in Cabernet Sauvignon wines

AIM To determine the effect of both ripeness and enzyme maceration on the astringency and bitterness perception of Cabernet Sauvignon winesRecent work has contributed to a more detailed understanding of the grape cell wall deconstruction process from ripening through crushing and fermentation, providing a better understanding of what role polysaccharides play in post-harvest fermentation of grapes(1,2). Current research on glycomics in red wine making suggest polysaccharides are important sensory impact molecules (3–6). METHODSOur experimental system harvests Cabernet Sauvignon grapes at three different ripeness levels and makes wine both with and without enzyme treatment.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

The temporal sensory interaction between 3-Mercaptohexanol, 3-Mercaptohexyl Acetate and Athanethiol using trata

Volatile sulphur compounds are a group of impact odorants with low odour thresholds that can contribute both positively and negatively to wine aroma. The varietal thiols, 3MH and 3MHA, are known to contribute positive tropical aromas to white wines and are most abundant in Sauvignon Blanc wines. The group of compounds contributing negative aromas are known as reductive sulphur compounds (RSCs) as they add a reductive aroma of asparagus, cooked vegetables and rotten egg to wines. All these compounds play a part in and are a result of the sulphur pathway in the yeast cell during fermentation and therefore attempting to increase the concentration of the varietal thiols may directly influence the concentration of the RSCs. The varietal thiols and the low molecular weight RSCs are highly volatile and therefore their sensory perception can change rapidly over time.

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IVES Conference SeriesMacrowine 2021Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Tropical fruit aroma in white wines: the role of fermentation esters and volatile thiols

Volatile thiols are impact aroma compounds, well-known in the literature for imparting tropical fruit aromas such as passion fruit, guava, grapefruit, and citrus in white wines [1]. More recent evidence suggests that tropical fruit aromas are also caused by other aroma compounds besides thiols, such as fermentation esters, or the interaction between these volatile families. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of combining esters and/or thiols to determine their impact on the fruitiness aroma perception of white wines. Pinot gris wine was produced at the OSU research winery and was dearomatized using Lichrolut® EN. Combinations of fermentation volatile compounds were added to the wine, forming the aroma base. Treatment wines were composed of additions of different concentrations and combinations of thiols and/or esters. Samples were subjected to sensory analysis where forty-six white wine consumers evaluated the orthonasal aroma of the wines and participated in Check-All-That-Apply (CATA).

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