The quality of a wine is largely related to the balance between its sourness, bitterness and sweetness. Recently, molecules coming from grapes have been showed to notably contribute to sweet taste of dry wines. To study the viticultural and oenological parameters likely to affect their concentration, their quantification appears of high interest and subsequently requires powerful analytical techniques. Therefore, a new method using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was developed and validated to quantify epi-DPA-3′-O-β-glucopyranoside acid (epi-DPA-G) and astilbin, sweet molecules identified in wine. Three gradients were tested on five different C18 columns (Hypersil Gold, HSS T3, BEH, Syncronis and Kinetex).
Proceedings of OENO IVAS 2019
From June 25th to June 28th 2019, the research unit in Enology, ISVV, University of Bordeaux, organized jointly the 11th symposium of Enology, Œno2019 and the 11th edition of In Vino Analytica Scientia IVAS 2019.
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It is often said that wine is a complex matrix and the chemical analysis of wine with the thousands of compounds detected and often measured is proof. New technologies can assist not only in separating and identifying wine compounds, but also in providing information about the sample as a whole. Information-rich techniques can offer a fingerprint of a sample (untargeted analysis), a comprehensive view of its chemical composition. Applying statistical analysis directly to the raw data can significantly reduce the number of compounds to be identified to the ones relevant to a particular scientific question. More data can equal more information, but also more noise for the subsequent statistical handling.
This study investigated if compositional differences between Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties could influence the production of yeast-derived compounds. This work was based on the analysis of 40 experimental red wines made in triplicate fermentations from grapes harvested from two consecutive vintages in New South Wales (Australia). Grapes were picked at three maturity stages using berry sugar accumulation as physiological indicator, from nine commercial vineyards located in three different climatic regions (temperate, temperate-warm and warm-hot). A range of 30 yeast-derived wine volatiles including esters and alcohols were quantified by HS/SPME-GC/MS. Ammonia, amino-acids and lipids were analysed in the corresponding grapes. The juice total soluble solids (°Brix) in addition to the wine alcohol and residual sugar levels were also measured. The influence of grape maturity on wine ester composition was also variety dependent, particularly for higher alcohol acetate and ethyl ester of branched acids. This study highlights that varietal differences observed in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines involve fermentation-derived compounds irrespective of the site (soil, climate, viticultural practices).
Sotolon (3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone) is a naturally occurring odorant compound with a strong caramel/spice-like scent, present in many foodstuffs. Its positive contribution for the aroma of different fortified wines such as Madeira, Port and Sherry is recognized. In contrast, it is also known to be responsible for the off-flavor character of prematurely aged dry white wines. The formation mechanisms of sotolon in wine are still not well elucidated, particularly in Madeira wines, which are submitted to thermal processing during its traditional ageing. The sotolon formation in these wines has been related to sugar degradation mechanisms, particularly from fructose .