terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 International Congress on Grapevine and Wine Sciences 9 2ICGWS-2023 9 Metabolomic profiling of botrytized grape berries: unravelling the dynamic chemical transformations during noble rot

Metabolomic profiling of botrytized grape berries: unravelling the dynamic chemical transformations during noble rot


Botrytis cinerea, a fungal pathogen commonly known as grey mold, which under specific climatic conditions can develop into a desirable form known as noble rot. In this process the fungus penetrates the grape skin, allowing water evaporation and concentration of sugars and flavors, while profoundly affects the metabolite composition of grapes, leading to the production of unique and desirable compounds in the resulting wines. The result is a unique and complex wine with a luscious sweetness, heightened aromatics, and a distinct character. This study aimed to explore the metabolite profiles and chemical transformations associated with noble rot in grape berries from the Betsek area in the Tokaj region. Botrytized grape samples were collected monthly from August to November, covering six phases of botritization. Immediate freezing in liquid nitrogen was performed on-field to preserve sample integrity. Metabolomic analysis was conducted by cryomilling the samples, followed by extraction with methanol and ethyl acetate. The extracts were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, utilizing both positive and negative electrospray ionization. The resulting metabolomic data was processed and statistically analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the untargeted metabolomic profiles obtained from the botrytized grape samples, which revealed distinct differences between each phase of botritization. The main source of variance observed in the PCA plot was attributed to the botrytization process itself. This finding suggests that the metabolic changes occurring during the different stages of botritization significantly contribute to the overall metabolite composition of the grape berries. Results provided a valuable overview of the dynamic nature of the metabolic transformations associated with noble rot, highlighting the temporal evolution of the metabolite profiles throughout the botrytization process. Further analysis will enable the identification of specific metabolites that contribute to the unique chemical characteristics of noble rot-affected grape berries.

Acknowledgements: This research was funded by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office under the project titled “Research and development to improve sustainability and climate resilience of viticulture and oenology at the Eszterházy Károly Catholic University” with the grant number TKP2021-NKTA-16.


Publication date: October 10, 2023

Issue: ICGWS 2023

Type: Poster


Miklós Lovas1*, Marietta Korózs1, Anna Molnár1, Ádám Hegyi1, Kriszta Szabadi1, Thomas Cels1, Kálmán Zoltán Váczy1

1Research and Development Centre, Eszterházy Károly Catholic University, Eger, Hungary

Contact the author*


noble rot, botrytis, metabolomics, grape, LCMS


2ICGWS | ICGWS | ICGWS 2023 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Vineyard yield estimation using image analysis: assessing bunch occlusions and its dependency on fruiting zone canopy features

Performing accurate vineyard yield estimation is of upmost importance as it provides important benefits to the whole vine and wine industry. Recently, image-analysis approaches have been explored to address this issue however this approach has as main challenge the bunch occlusion, mostly by vegetation but also by neighboring bunches. The present work aims at assessing the magnitude of bunch occlusion by neighboring bunches and to evaluate its dependency on a selection of vegetative and reproductive vine parameters assessed at fruiting zone. Forty vine segments (1 m) of two vineyard plots of the white cultivars ‘Alvarinho’ and ‘Arinto’ were assessed for vegetative and reproductive features at fruiting zone and imaged with a 2D camera.

Effect of abiotic stress and grape variety on amino acid and polyamine composition of red grape berries

Vines are exposed to environmental conditions that cause abiotic stress on the plants (drought, nutrient and mineral deficits, salinity, etc.). Polyamines are growth regulators involved in various physiological processes, as in abiotic plant stress responses. Stressful conditions can modify grape’s composition, and in this work, we have focused on studying the effect of abiotic stress on the composition of polyamines and amino acids in grapes. In addition, the effect of grape variety on these compounds has been studied.

Combined abiotic-biotic plant stresses on the roots of grapevine

In the 19th century, devastating outbreaks of phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch), almost brought European viticulture to its knees. Phylloxera does not only take energy in form of sugars from the vine, but also affects the up- and down- regulations of genes, acts as a carbon sink and reprograms the physiology of the grapevines, including nutrient uptake and the defense system [1]. A key trait of rootstocks is the ability to perform well under high lime conditions as about 30 % of the land surface has calcareous soil. Iron deficiency not only causes the well-known problems of lime-induced chlorosis and stunted growth, but also affects the entire plant metabolism.

Genetic variation among wild grapes native to Japan

Domesticated grapes are assumed to have originated in the Middle East. However, a considerable number of species are native in East Asian countries such as China, Korea and Japan as well. Evidence suggests that a total of seven species and eight varieties have been found to be native to Japan. A wide level variation in morphology, genetic and fruit composition exist in wild grape native to Japan.

Identification of several glycosidic aroma precursors in six varieties of winemaking grapes and assessment of their aroma potential by acid hydrolysis

In winemaking grapes, it is known that most aroma compounds are present as non-volatile precursors, such as glycosidic precursors. In fact, there is strong evidence supporting the connection between the content of aroma precursors and the aromatic quality of wine [1]. Acid hydrolysis is preferred to reveal the aroma potential of winemaking grapes, as it predicts more accurately the chemical rearrangements occurring during fermentation in acidic environments [2]. In this study, a method involving a fast fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis at 75ºC was used to evaluate the accumulation of aroma compounds over time in fractions obtained from six different varieties of winemaking grapes.