The evolution of the aromatic composition of carbonic maceration wines
The vinification by Carbonic maceration (CM) involves the process whereby the whole bunches are subjected to anaerobic conditions during several days. In this anaerobic condition, the grape endogenous enzymes begin an intracellular fermentation. This situation favors that whole grapes split open and release their juice into the tank, increasing the liquid phase that is fermented by yeasts . Then, two types of wines are obtained; one from the free-run liquid in the tank (FCM) and other from the liquid after pressing the whole grape bunches (PCM). PCM wines are recognized as high quality young wines because their fruity and floral aromas that although they are very intense at the end of the winemaking they gradually disappear during conservation.
In this study, the aromatic composition evolution of FCM and PCM wines has been evaluated for 18 months and compared to wines elaborated by destemming/crushing.
The results showed a similar evolution in the aromatic composition of the three studied wines, with the total alcohols content almost stable and with an acetate concentration that decreased over time. In contrast, the esters concentration was increased after 18 months in every studied wine. The initial aromatic differences between the wines were maintained throughout the storage, except for the acetates content, that despite being higher in the PCM wines, decreased by a higher amount. Therefore, a quick transformation of the aromatic composition of the PCM that would imply their quick consumption was not observed.
Acknowledgements: This study has been financed from the Project RTI2018-096051-R-C31/C31 (MCIU/AEI/FEDER; UE).
1) Tesniere C, Flanzy C (2011) Carbonic maceration wines: characteristics and winemaking process. In: Jackson RS (ed) Adv Food Nutr Res. Academic Press Elsevier, Burlington, pp 1-15
2) Spranger I et al (2004) Differentiation of red winemaking technologies by phenolic and volatile composition. Anal Chim Acta 513:151–161. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2004.01.023
Issue: ICGWS 2023
1ICVV, Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino Gobierno de La Rioja, Universidad de La Rioja, CSIC, Finca La Grajera, Ctra. LO-20- salida 13, 26071, Logroño, Spain.