Microorganism-based inoculants have been suggested as a viable solution to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change on viticulture. However, the actual effectiveness of these inoculants when applied under field conditions remains a challenge, and their effects on the existing soil microbiota are still uncertain. This study investigates the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on grapevine performance and microbiome. The study was conducted in a vineyard of Callet cultivar in Binissalem, Mallorca, Spain. Two different treatments were applied: control and inoculation with commercial mycorrhizae complex of Rhizoglomus irregulare applied to plants through irrigation.
Soil is important in the carbon cycle and the dynamics of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O). Key soil characteristics, such as organic matter content, texture, structure, pH and microbial activity, play a determining role in GHG emissions. The objective of the study is to delimit different types of soil, with different soil management and to be able to verify the differences in CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. The study was carried out in a vineyard of Bodegas Campo Viejo in Logroño (La Rioja), whose plant material is Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.
Can soil nitrate explain polyphenol and anthocyanin content in vineyard with similar available soil water regime?
Nitrogen (N) is quite important nutrient in grapevine development and must quality, but under Mediterranean climatic conditions, available soil water (ASW) during grapevine development can also influence vigour and must quality. The aim was to determine the influence of soil nitrate (NO3-) availability on N foliar, yield, and must quality in vineyards with similar available water holding capacity (AWC). For this purpose, four cv. Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) vineyards were selected. All of them are placed in Uruñuela municipality (La Rioja, Spain), separated less than 2.5 km and in a slope <1 %, in soils with similar soil chemistry properties and with similar rooting depth (ranging between 105 cm and 110 cm).
The nitrogen composition of the grapes directly affects the developments of alcoholic fermentation and influences the final aromatic composition of the wines. The aim of this study was to determine the effect and efficiency of foliar applications of urea on the nitrogen composition of grapes. This study was carried out during 2023 vintage and in the Chenin vineyard located in Estacion Experimental Mendoza (Argentina). Three urea concentrations 3, 6 and 9 Kg N/ha (C1, C2, and C3, respectively) and control (T) were applied in this vineyard at veraison.
Spain is the country with the largest wine-producing area in the EU and its productivity is largely controlled applying fungicides. However, residues of these compounds can move and contaminate surface and groundwater. The objective of this work was to evaluate the capacity of bioadsorbents from different origin to adsorb and immobilize tetraconazole by themselves or when applied as organic soil amendment, and to prevent soil and water contamination by this fungicide. The adsorption of tetraconazole by 3 organic residues: spent mushroom substrate (SMS), green compost (GC) and vine pruning sawdust (VP), as well as by vineyard soils unamended and amended individually with these residues at 1.5% (w/w) was evaluated using the batch equilibrium technique.
Cover cropping in vineyard is a sustainable and alternative soil management system to conventional tillage that is gaining more and more importance among winegrowers and is being promoted, among other organizations, by the European Union through the eco-schemes of the Common Agricultural Policy.
However, the use of cover crops in Mediterranean viticultural environments is conditioned, to a large extent, by the availability of irrigation water which, in a context of global warming like the one we are experiencing, must be adjusted to savings strategies, supplying to the vine only what it needs in each moment.
The irrigation water management in the vineyard is a crucial aspect to obtain sustainable quality production over time. Previous studies have set the water requirements to be applied in the vineyard at 30 % of the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), although there are no studies that settle the effects of the frequency of irrigation application on red varieties in Spain. The present study contemplates the application of deficit irrigation (30 % ET0) applying a weekly dose in a single irrigation (T07) or in two irrigation events (T03) per week. The study has been carried out in 2021-2022 with four red varieties in different Spanish wine regions: Garnacha Tinta (Badajoz), Tempranillo (Valladolid), Syrah (Albacete) and Mencía (Lugo). The effects of irrigation frequency on must volatile composition have been evaluated through GC-MS.
Water availability at budbreak time in vineyards that are deficitary irrigated during the summer: Effect on must volatile composition
In recent years, Mediterranean regions are being affected by marked climate changes, primarily characterized by reduced precipitation, greater concurrence of temperature extremes and drought during the growing season, and increased inter-annual variability in temperatures and rainfall. Generally, high-quality red wines need moderate water deficit. Hence, irrigation may be needed to avoid severe vine water stress occurring in some vintages and soils with low holding capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil recharge irrigation in pre-sprouting and summer irrigation every week (30 % ETO) from the pea size state until the end of ripening (RP) compared to exclusively summer irrigation every week (R) in the same way that RP, on must volatile composition at harvest.
In the 19th century, devastating outbreaks of phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch), almost brought European viticulture to its knees. Phylloxera does not only take energy in form of sugars from the vine, but also affects the up- and down- regulations of genes, acts as a carbon sink and reprograms the physiology of the grapevines, including nutrient uptake and the defense system . A key trait of rootstocks is the ability to perform well under high lime conditions as about 30 % of the land surface has calcareous soil. Iron deficiency not only causes the well-known problems of lime-induced chlorosis and stunted growth, but also affects the entire plant metabolism.
Grapevine rootstocks provide protection against environmental biotic and abiotic stresses. Nitrogen (N) and iron (Fe) are growth-limiting factors in many crop plants due to their effects on the chlorophyll and photosynthetic characteristics. Iron nutrition of plants can be significantly affected by different nitrogen forms through altering the uptake ratio of cations and anions, and changing rhizosphere pH. The aim of this study was to investigate the response mechanisms of grapevine rootstocks due to the interaction between different nitrogen forms and iron uptake.
The vineyard has experienced a general increase in yields mainly due to the elevated use of technology which caused a quality loss of grapes in more than one case. A large percentage of the Spanish vineyard is covered by a Denomination of Origin which limits the productive level of the vineyards as one of its regulations. The maximum production limit is a variable characteristic of each vineyard and is not usually regulated by agronomic criteria, and this explains the fact that each vineyard can reach high quality with a totally different yield from that set by the Denomination of Origin.
Qualitative and productive characterization of a minority variety: ‘Branco lexítimo’ in DO Ribeira Sacra (Spain)
The actual climate changes, together with the strong regulation of the European Union and Spanish government, in search of sustainable viticulture, have forced the recovery of minority varieties, expanding the range of grape varieties, as well as the possible development of wines with unique profiles. In the Ribeira Sacra DO (Spain), a comparative study of the agronomic and qualitative behavior of the ‘Branco lexítimo’ variety has been carried out, compared to the majority white variety in the DO: ‘Godello’, located in the same study plot, with identic soil and climatic conditions. The study contemplated the analysis of phenology and leaf water potential, as well as the productive results and the analysis of the must quality, during four seasons: 2018 – 2021.
In temperate climates, such as in the North of Spain, the use of irrigation in the vineyard has not been required, due to the usual rainfall from June to August. In some large vineyards, irrigation management has been carried out, based on occasional support irrigation, or for the application of nutrients (fertigation). Currently it is necessary to implement decision support models to manage irrigation water in real time and avoid misuse of a scarce resource. Moreover, quality standards must be achieved, as in the previous rainfed viticulture.
The under-trellis zone of vineyards is a sensitive area through which vines cover a significant portion of their nutrient and water needs. Mechanical and chemical methods are applied to suppress competing and tall-growing weeds to ensure optimal vine growth conditions. In addition to higher operating costs and depending on the soil conditions, these practices might lead to a long-term reduction in soil fertility and biodiversity. The presented study aims to analyse the suitability and interspecies competition of a selected green cover mixture of five local herbaceous species as potential green cover mixture in the under-trellis area of Lower Austrian vineyards.
Due to climate change, the occurrence of heatwaves and drought events is increasing, with significant impact on viticulture. Common ways to adapt viticulture to a changing climate include site selection, genotype selection, irrigation management and canopy management. The latter mentioned being for instance source-sink manipulations, such as leaf removal, with the aim to delay ripening.