GiESCO 2019

Climate change

The state of the climate

Context and purpose of the study – The climate has warmed over the past century or more bringing about changes in numerous aspects in both earth and human systems. One of these systems, agriculture, is strongly influenced by climate, which largely determines what type, where, and how crops can be ...
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Impacts on water availability for vitiviniculture worldwide using different potential evapotranspiration methods

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Beyond the sole warming globally perceived and monitored, climate change impacts water availability. Increasing heatwaves frequency observed during the last decades and projected for the 21st century certainly result (or will result)in more water deficit stress for grapevine. Change in water availability throughout ...
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How to develop strategies of adaptation to climate change based on a foresight exercise?

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Prospective studies raise a real intellectual interest for those who contribute to them or take cognizance of it. But they are often considered too difficult to operationalize, and most of the prospective exercises are not followed by action plans, particularly at value chain ...
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Sustaining grape production under challenging climate change circumstances

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Grapevines are an important economic crop grown in temperate climates of both hemispheres characterized by short‐term heat spells and heat waves due to the distinct th st seasonality. However, these events have worsened during the late 20 and early 21 centuries due to ...
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Simulating the impact of climate change on grapevine behaviour and viticultural activities

Context and purpose of the study‐ Global climate change affects regional climates and hold implications for wine growing regions worldwide (Jones, 2007 and 2015; Van Leeuwen and Darriet, 2016). The prospect of 21st century climate change consequently is one of the major challenges facing the wine industry (Keller, 2010). They ...
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Soil and zoning

Root development and the performance of grapevines in response to natural as well as man‐made soil impediments

Context and purpose of the study ‐ The majority of soils used for wine and table grape production in South Africa are notoriously shallow, i.e. they are restricting root penetration. The result of such shallow soils is uneven and poor vineyard performance that eventually lead to unprofitable vineyards. The purpose ...
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Soil and topography effects on water status and must composition of chardonnay in burgundy & a mini meta‐analysis of the δ 13C/water potentials correlation

Context and purpose of the study: The measurement of carbon isotopic discrimination in grape sugars 13 at harvest (δ C) is an integrated assessment of water status during ripening. It is an efficient alternative to assess variability in the field and discriminate between management zones in precision viticulture, but further work ...
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Effect of topography on vine evapotranspiration and water status in hillside vineyards

Context and purpose of the study – Many winegrape regions have hillside vineyards, where vine water use is affected by vine age, density and health, canopy size, row orientation, irrigation practices, and by block slope and aspect. Topography affects the amount of solar radiation the vines receive, which is a major ...
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How much does the soil, climate and viticultural practices contribute to the variability of the terroir expression?

Context and purpose of the study ‐ When considering the application of a systemic approach to assess the intrinsic complexity of agricultural production, the following question immediately arises: how is this synthesis made? In this sense, characterizing the joint effects of environmental factors and viticultural practices on vine functioning represents a ...
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Vine genetic resources

The state-of-the-art of grapevine biotechnology and new breeding technologies (NBTS)

Context of the review – The manipulation of the genetic basis controlling grapevine adaptation and phenotypic plasticity can be performed either by classical genetics or biotechnologies. In the last 15 years, considerable knowledge has accumulated about the grapevine genome as well as the mechanisms involved in the interaction of the vine ...
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The myth of the universal rootstock revisited: assessment of the importance of interactions between scion and rootstock

Aim‐ Rootstocks provide protection against soil borne pests and are a powerful tool to manipulate growth, fruit composition and wine quality attributes. The present study aimed to assess the consistency of rootstock effects on growth and fruit composition of scion varieties and identify scion x rootstock interactions. Methods and Results‐ Vine performance ...
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Evaluation of the agronomic performance of cvs. Syrah and tempranillo when grafted on a new series of rootstocks developed in spain

Context and purpose of the study ‐ The choice of an adequate rootstock is a key tool to improve the performance of grapevine varieties in different ‘terroirs’, as rootstocks confer adaptation to soil characteristics such as salinity, acidity, lime content or drought. Moreover, it is well‐known that rootstocks also have ...
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Greffadapt: a relevant experimental vineyard to speed up the selection Of grapevine rootstocks

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Grapevine is grown as a grafted plant since the end of the 19th century. The large majority of rootstocks were selected at this period. Among the large diversity of existing rootstocks, few of them are commercially used in the vineyard. However, rootstocks could be considered ...
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Vine physiology and grape ripening

A few observations on double sigmoid fruit growth

Context and purpose ‐ Many fleshy fruit, including the grape berry, exhibit a double‐sigmoid growth (DSG) pattern. Identification of the curious DSG habit has long been attributed to Connors’ (1919) work with peaches. Connors’ description of a three‐stage pattern consisting of two growth stages (Stage I and Stage III) separated ...
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Towards the definition of a detailed transcriptomic map of grape berry development

Context and purpose of the study ‐ In the last years the application of genomic tools to the analysis of gene expression during grape berry development generated a huge amount of transcriptomic data from different varieties and growing conditions. This information set the stage to understand the molecular basis of ...
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Modeling from functioning of a grape berry to the whole plant

Context and purpose of the study – Grape quality is a complex trait that mainly refers to berry chemical composition, including sugars, organic acids, phenolics, aroma and aroma precursor compounds. It is known that the composition and concentration of chemical compounds dynamically change along berry development and can be affected ...
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Hexose efflux from the peeled grape berry

Context and purpose of the study ‐ After the onset of grape berry ripening, phloem unloading follows an apoplasmic route into the mesocarp tissue. In the apoplast, most of the unloaded sucrose is cleaved by cell wall invertases, and imported into the cells as glucose and fructose. Alternatively, sucrose can ...
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From average to individual fruit, a paradigm shift for accurate analysis of water accumulation and primary metabolism in developing berries

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Presentknowledge about grape development is mainly driven by the premise that a typical berry would follow the same kinetics as the population average, the principal challenge being to gather representative samples. In this frame, the elaboration of harvest quality directly reflects the impact ...
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Viticultural techniques

Piloting grape ripening in a global warming scenario: feasible techniques are available

Under the pressure of global warming, several wine grape growing regions around the world are increasingly suffering from advanced and compressed phenology; endangering wine character while also creating serious logistic problems. From a physiological standpoint, the issue of delaying ripening is not simple as, in several instances, only a few ...
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To what extent does vine balance actually drive fruit composition?

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Vine balance is a concept describing the relationship between carbon assimilation (usually estimated using a measure of vine vigour, e.g. pruning weight) and its utilisation for fruit production (usually estimated using harvest yield). Manipulating vine balance through leaf area or crop load adjustments ...
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Impact of crop load management on terpene content in gewürztraminer grapes

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Crop load management by cluster thinning can improve ripening and the concentration of key metabolites for grape and wine quality. However, little work has been done on testing the impact of crop load management on terpene content of white grapes. The goal of ...
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Is early defoliation a sustainable management practice for mediterranean vineyards? Case studies at the portuguese lisbon winegrowing region

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Recently early defoliation (ED) has been tested in several high‐ yielding grapevine varieties and sites aiming at reducing cluster compactness and hence, regulating yield and susceptibility to botrytis bunch rot infection. The reported results have been generally positive, encouraging growers to use this ...
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Late leaf removal does not consistently delay ripeningin semillon in Australia

Context and purpose of the study ‐ An advancement of grapevine phenological development has been observed worldwide in the last two decades. In South Australia this phenomenon is even more accentuated since grapevine is often grown in a hot climate. The main consequences are earlier harvests at higher sugar levels ...
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Vine protection and sustainability

Sustainable yield management through fruitfulness and bunch architecture manipulation

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Vineyards are highly variable and this variation is largely driven by environmental conditions and seasonal variation. For example, warm temperatures and sunny days during bud initiation generally result in high yields in the next season while cold periods during flowering and fruitset can ...
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Impact of tomato black ring virus (TBRV) on quantitative and qualitative feature of Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Merlot and Cabernet franc

Context and purpose of the study – Fifteen nepoviruses are able to induce fanleaf degeneration in grapes which is economically the most imprtant viral disease. Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is the main causal agent of this disease worldwide and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) is the second most important nepovirus involved ...
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Impact of grapevine leafroll virus infections on vine physiology and the berry transcriptome

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Grapevine leafroll associated virus (GLRaV) infections deteriorate vine physiological performance and cause high losses of yield and fruit quality and are thus causing serious economic losses in the wine industry. Physiological and molecular studies on the impact of leafroll infections on plant and ...
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Early detection project – make a GTD infection visible without disease symptoms

Context and purpose of the study ‐ The presence of grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) related pathogens leads to severe economic losses in wine‐growing regions all over the world. GTDs cause foliar discoloration, stunted growth, decline, sectorial and/or central necrosis of the trunk wood, and dieback, while the quality and the ...
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Exploring the factors affecting spatio‐temporal variation in grapevine powdery mildew

Context and purpose of the study ‐ The spatial distribution of powdery mildew is often heterogeneous between neighboring plots, with higher disease pressure in certain places that can be considered as disease “hotspots”. The position of hotspots can vary over the years, even if some plots consistently present a higher ...
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Precision viticulture, new technologies and vineyard mechanization

Sensitivity of vis‐nir spectral indices to detect nitrogen deficiency and canopy function in cv. Barbera (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapevines

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Precision nutrient management in viticulture can be addressed on the basis of a spatial characterization of within‐vineyard vine nutritional status derived from proximal or remote spectral observations. However, a key challenge is the discrimination between mineral deficiencies and water stress related issues, often ...
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Hyperspectral imaging and cnn for on‐the‐go, non‐destructive assessment of grape composition in the vineyard

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Knowledge of the spatial‐temporal variation of the grape composition within a vineyard may assist decision making regarding sampling and vineyard management, especially if selective harvest is aimed. To have a truthful picture of the spatial‐temporal dynamics of grape composition evolution during ripening in ...
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Aroma and quality assessment for vertical vintages using machine learning modelling based on weather and management information

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Wine quality traits are usually given by parameters such as aroma profile, total acidity, alcohol content, colour and phenolic content, among others. These are highly dependent on the weather conditions during the growing season and management strategies. Therefore, it is important to develop ...
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Utilization of remote sensing technology to detect riesling vineyard variability

Context and purpose of the study – Vineyard blocks can vary spatially with respect to several viticulturally significant qualities such as soil variables, vine vigor, vine physiology, yield components, and berry composition. The ability to detect this variation enables the application of precision viticulture, whereby intra‐vineyard variability can be readily ...
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Monitoring of ripening and yield of vineyards in Nemea region using UAV

Context and purpose of the study ‐ Nemea region is the largest POD zone in Greece. Agiorgitiko (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) is the most cultivated variety in Greece with significant wine potential. Due to the extension of the area there is a great variability of soil content and climatic conditions. ...
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