Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.
Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California
San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.
The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars
The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.
Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape
The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.
Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture
Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.
Grape composition and wine quality of Muscat Hamburg cultivar after a specific inactivated dry yeast application as adaptation strategy to climate change
In a climate change context, the management of Mediterranean vineyards should be adapted to the new environmental conditions. Predictive models underline that in the future the most of the Mediterranean vineyard regions is expected to experience further warming events producing challenges in ripening balanced fruit. It is already registered that in warm and dry summers, the ripening process is faster and the balance between phenolic and technological (sugar) maturity may not be the desirable. This study investigates the use of specific inactivated yeast derivatives sprayed on the entire canopies of field grown cv Muscat Hamburg vines.
Viticulture in Greece is the oldest, but in recent years there has been a reduction of areas intended for the production of wine products. The article contains data on viticulture in Greece. Over time, the land of Greek vineyards is fluctuating. There is a trend towards a decrease in areas in connection with the quota of products from the EU.
The leaf area is of fundamental importance so that the plant can realize adequate levels of photosynthesis for the accumulation of reserves and to reach a suitable maturation of
the berries. In this sense, the objective was to evaluate the effect of different lengths of the stalks from the first support wire, in the must and in the wine of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’.
Effects of abscisic acid treatment on Vitis vinifera L. Savvatiano and Mouchtaro grapes and wine characteristics
Grapes development is determined by grape cultivar and vineyard climatic conditions and consequently affecting the phenolic and aroma on grapes and wines. Abscisic Acid (ABA) plays a key role in the promotion of fruit ripening and fruit anthocyanin content. Herein, we report the impact of ABA to grape ripening and wine quality.
Environmental factors like soil and climate influence grape quality potential. Their impact is often mediated through vine water and nitrogen status. Depending on the color of the grapes (red or white) and the type of wine produced, the desired level of vine water and nitrogen status for optimum wine quality is different. Little investigation has been carried out concerning these factors and their potential influence on sparkling wine quality on two vintages. In this study vine water and nitrogen status were assessed at a very high density and related to grape composition and berry weight. Through statistical analyses, the major factors driving grape quality potential on Pinot noir in Champagne were highlighted.
Effects of severe shoot trimming at different phenological stages on the composition of Merlot grapes
High concentration of sugars in grapes and alcohols in wines is one of the consequences of climate change on viticulture production in several wine regions. One of the options to alleviate this potential problem is to perform severe shoot trimming of the vines to limit the production of carbohydrates. Two different studies were performed in order to investigate the effects of severe shoot trimming on the composition of Merlot grapes; in a first study severe shoot trimming was performed at three different phenological stages (at berry set, at the beginning of veraison and at the end of veraison), while in a second study two trimming treatments (standard shoot trimming and severe shoot trimming performed at the end of veraison) were combined with two shoot densities in order to evaluate the relative impact of these treatments on Merlot grape composition.
Deficit irrigation and mechanical canopy management affect berry and wine phenolic and aroma composition of Syrah in Central California
Labor shortage is one of the most crucial issues in current viticulture. Mechanized approaches are helpful in reducing production costs and increasing vineyard efficiency but their effect on grapes and wines needs evaluation. This work assess the results of combined mechanical pruning and shoot thinning with deficit irrigation strategies to reduce management costs but not quality of production.
High quality wines start in the vineyard however little is known about the role vineyard management practices play in this quality outcome. Gold medals and well-known regionality increase consumer preference for purchasing a wine. An increase in the former will certainly also drive an increase in the latter and therefore practices in production that consistently lead to gold medal winning wines will improve both the marketability of the region and its products. It is argued that vinification is the main driver of wine quality and in fact, the presence of some oak compounds is a well-known consumer and expert mark of quality. However, only select wines are vinified in oak and therefore the original grape quality at the winery door must in fact drive all further downstream vinification decisions.
This paper presents is the create, the study and amplographic
description the new white Greek table variety grapes “Aztec”, created in 2013 by breeder P. Zamanidis at
the Athens vineyard of the Institute of Olive, Subtropical Plants and Vine.
Among the different strategies used in vine growing to fight against mold diseases, it can be pointed out the hybridation of traditional grape varieties with others, presenting a genetic resistance to pathogen attack. The research in this field has been encouraged in recent years due to the increased concern about human safety and environmental pollution linked to the use of agrochemicals. This approach allows to limit the number of treatments and the type of active compounds used in vine management. The environment determines the pressure degree of the diseases on vines and the biologic response of the plant to their attack.
It is well documented that varietal aroma is an important parameter of wine quality. Chemical compounds responsible for wine varietal aroma are sourced from secondary grape metabolites. Until today little research is conducted on the influence of vine clone on the grape aromatic content of Greek grape varieties. Xinomavro (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most important Greek grape varieties, valuable for the wine industry of Northern Greece since it contributes to the production of PDO wine of Naoussa, Amindeo and Goumenissa.
The interest in understanding the water balance of terrestrial plants under drought has led to the creation of the isohydric/anisohydric terminology. The classification was related to an implication-driven framework, where isohydric plants maintain a constant and high leaf water potential through an early and intense closure of their stomata, hence risking carbon starvation. In contrast, anisohydric plants drop their leaf water potential to low values as soil drought is establishing due to insensitive stomata and thus risk mortality through hydraulic failure, albeit maximizing carbon intake. When applied to grapevines, this framework has been elusive, yielding discrepancies in the classification of different wine grape varieties around the world.
On the market there are several wine grapes which are tolerant to the main fungal diseases. These varieties, commonly defined “resistant”, were developed in the grapevine breeding programs carried out mainly in Germany, France, Hungary and Italy. Some of these cultivars have been included in the national catalogues of wine grape varieties and have sometimes been allowed for specific kinds of wine. The VEVIR project, aimed at the enological evaluation of resistant vines, involves 33 cultivars achieved at the State Institute for Viticulture Freiburg in Germany, the Research Institute of Viticulture and Enology Pecs in Hungary and the Fondazione Edmund Mach S. Michele all’Adige (FEM) in Italy.