In California, little training in sprayer calibration or pesticide drift management is required to apply pesticides. Yet, there is a need to maximize pesticide efficacy and minimize drift. Therefore, our team is developing a training course on airblast application best practices. We distributed a survey to identify current practices and used importance-performance analysis to interpret responses to the importance of spray related topics and satisfaction with previous training.
The grapesim model: a model to better understand the complex interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in grapevines
Nitrogen fertilization is an important practice to guarantee vineyards sustainability and performance over years, while ensuring berry quality. However, achieving a precise nitrogen fertilization to meet specific objectives of production is difficult. There is a lack of knowledge on the impact of nitrogen fertilizers (soil/foliar; organic/mineral) and different levels of fertilization on the interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles within the vine. Crop models may be useful in that purpose because they can provide new insights of the effects of fertilization in carbon and nitrogen storage. The objective of this study is to build a model to simulate grapevine carbon and nitrogen content in vines to evaluate the impact of different fertilization strategies in vine growth and yield.
Statewide relationships between water potentials, gas exchange and δ13c of grape musts in California. Implications for use in precision viticulture
The measurement of carbon isotopic discrimination of musts (δ13C) at harvest is an integrated assessment of water status during ripening of grapevine. It is an alternative to traditional measurements of water status in the field, which is crucial for understanding spatial variability of plant physiology at the vineyard scale, proven useful for delineation of management zones in precision viticulture. The aim of this work was to attune the method for the first time to California conditions across a range of areas and cultivars with different hydric behavior, and to evaluate its efficiency in delineating management zones for selective harvest in commercial vineyards.
In Castilla-La Mancha as other winegrowing regions, vineyards suffer the effects of the global climate warming. Severe spring and summer droughts are increasingly frequent, which concur with the phenological stages most susceptible to water and temperature stress. Under these conditions, irrigation use is required in order to ensure the vineyard growing sustainability. However water resources are increasingly limited, for this reason is required to choose cultivars displaying high water use efficiency.
Berry shriveling (BS) in vineyards are caused by numerous factors such as sunburn, dehydration, stem necrosis. Climate change results in an increase in day and night temperatures, rainfall throughout the year, changes in the timing and quantities, long dry summers and a combination of climatic variability such as floods, droughts and heatwaves). Grape development and its composition at harvest is influenced by the latter as grape metabolites are sensitive to the environmental conditions. The grape berry experiences water loss and an increase in flavour development as a result of the BS. An increased sugar content in grapes will result in higher alcohol wines and concentration of grape aromas which may be detrimental to the final wine quality.
The risk of wildfires is increasing as the frequency and severity of drought and heat waves continue to rise. Wildfires are associated with the combustion of plant materials and emit smoke. In the atmosphere, smoke may spread readily across large areas. Smoke is composed of solid and liquid phase particulates and gases and has been identified as a causal agent of “smoke taint” in wine. On a smoky day, the intensity of direct light decreases because these particulates scatter sunlight. Even though this effect is frequently assumed to decrease plant photosynthesis, this assumption ignores the potential changes in diffuse light and may be based on scant evidence.
Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) has long been a ratio to quantify relative plant water status in several crop and woody plants. Given its rather well relationship to either leaf or stem water potential and the feasibility to sample big vineyard areas as well as to collect quite a huge quantity of data with airborne cameras and image processing applications, it is being studied as a tool for irrigation monitoring in commercial vineyards. The objective of this paper was to know if CWSI estimated by measuring leaf temperature with an infrared hand held camera could be used to substitute the measure of stem water potential (SWP) without losing accuracy of plant water status measure.
Carbon isotope discrimination in berry juice sugars: changes in response to soil water deficits across a range of vitis vinifera cultivars
In wine producing regions around the world, climate change has the potential to decrease the frequency and amount of precipitation and increase average and extreme temperatures. This will lower soil water availability and increase evaporative demand, thereby increasing the frequency and intensity of water deficit experienced in vineyards. Among other things, grapevines manage water deficit by regulating stomatal closure. The dynamics of this regulation, however, have not been well characterized across the range of Vitis vinifera cultivars. Providing a method to understand how different cultivars regulate their stomata, and hence water use in response to changes in soil water deficits will help growers manage vineyards and select plant material to better meet quality and yield objectives in a changing climate.
The ripening of grapevine berries encompasses complex morphological and physiological processes, especially at veraison. Berry shrivel (BS) is a ripening physiological disorder affecting grape berries with visible symptoms appearing short after veraison. The main symptoms of BS are a strong reduction in sugar accumulation, inhibited anthocyanin biosynthesis and high pH values. The most popular red grape cultivar in Austria “Blauer Zweigelt” (Vitis vinifera L.) is specifically prone to develop the BS ripening disorder and up to date a no specific cause or causes could be identified. Recently omics approaches have identified and characterized key processes during grapevine ripening. Among them a small subset of genes, called SWITCH, have been described as markers for the onset of the ripening process in fruits.
Botrytis bunch rot occurrence is one of the most important limitations for the wine industry in humid environments. A positive correlation between grapevine growth and susceptibility to fungal pathogens has been found. In theory the effect of grapevine vegetative growth on bunch rot expression results from direct effects (cluster architecture, nitrogen status among others) and indirect ones (via microclimate). However, a reduction in bunch rot incidence can be achieved in some circumstances without major vine growth reduction. The present study was aimed to test the general hypothesis that bunch rot susceptibility is affected by vine vigor, but other factors associated with grapevine vegetative expression could be even more relevant.
Handbook of the charter of the universal holistic metaethics sustainability 4.1c” for certification and warranty bio-métaétique 4.1c
Defined the new paradigm, the applied philosophy, the methodology, the algorithm of the "Charter for Universal Holistic MetaEthic Sustainability 4.1C17.18", research has continued to define and write, an
handbook that should be:"Complete Universal Holistic MetaEthics 4.1C of descriptors” of the "Charter for Sustainability Universal Holistic MetaEthic 4.1C17.18" with basic and applicative indexing. In these activities and research we have involved over 3500 Italian and non-Italian people from the research world to simple but educated, enlightened and enlightening citizens and we have analyzed over 180000
entries concerning the descriptors above, which represent the basic "descriptors".
First company results and for the territory on the application of the “bio-Métaéthique 4.1c” in italy. Cultural, socio-economic, technical and productive aspects
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Bees, climate changes, and “environmental sustainability 4.1c” in viticulture and the territory for a new global multiproductive “biometaethical district 4.1c”
The use of bees as pollinators in vine varieties with physiologically female flowers (Picolit, Bicane, Ceresa, Moscato rosa, etc.) (Cargnello, 1983) and as bio-indicators for biodiversity and environmental sustainability is well-known. Furthermore, there are interests in: 1-a. Making the viticulture of Belluno (Province of Veneto in North-eastern Italy, which is also famous for the Dolomites -a UNESCO World Heritage-) regain the socioeconomic role which it is entitled to and which it had got in its past by aiming at the enhancement of local grape variety in harmony with others, for example with the neighboring area of the Conegliano and Valdobbiadene Prosecco Superiore DOCG; 2-a. Maintaining and further improving the important natural and healthy environment of Belluno, and making its territory and the “lookout” means of the environmental sustainability, including its vineyards, even more naturally original and sustainable 4.1C.
Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) ordinarily has great difficulty establishing leaf galls on the European Grapevine (VitisviniferaL.). Yet populations of leaf-feeding Phylloxera are increasingly being observed throughout commercial vineyards world-wide. Effective plant protection strategies including quarantine actions are currently missing to fight, grape phylloxera populations in affected vineyards and combat linked negative effects on vines and yield. Contrary to the otherwise mandatory continuous infestation pressure from externally established populations (e.g. from populations developed on rootstock foliage or other interspecific hybrids, these leaf-feeding populations seem to establish themselves annually.
Testing the pathogen e-learning and field training course on grapevine virus knowledge and management
One of the reasons of the spread of grapevine virus diseases in
vineyards around the world is the lack of knowledge by the main actors of the wine sector. To face this problem, five partners worked together to develop the PAThOGEN project, a training program aimed to improve grapevine virus knowledge and management. The partnership gathers one French technical center (IFV), one Spanish university (USC), one Italian applied research center (CREA), one Spanish foundation
specialized in training and technology transfer (FEUGA) and one Italian SME specialized in the development of informatics tools and in knowledge transfer (HORTA).The objectives of PAThOGEN are: (i) to develop and
maintain a high-quality work-based Vocational and Education Training program, (ii) to improve the skills of professionals of the wine sector.