GIESCO 2023

IVES 9 Tag: GIESCO 2023

First characterization of Torrontés Riojano in la Rioja, Argentina: impact of pruning intensity on vine vigor and grape production 

Pruning is one essential vineyard management activity whose main purpose is to regulate plant growth and vigour, modulating berry size, and consequently, wine quality. In Chilecito, La Rioja Province, Argentina, Torrontés Riojano stands as the only autochthonous variety for winemaking, yielding golden and aromatic berries and distinctive muscatel-tasting wines. This white cultivar, resulting from the natural cross between Moscatel de Alejandría x Criolla Chica, is traditionally trained in “parral” (horizontal trellis system), aimed to manage vigorous canopies. This project constitutes the first study on the influence of pruning intensity on Torrontés Riojano growth habit and berry quality.

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Estimation of degree brix in grapes by proximal hyperspectral sensing and nanosatellite imagery through the random forest regressor

The assessment of physiological parameters in vineyards can be done by direct measurements or by remote, indirect methods. The latter option frequently yields useful data, and development of methods and techniques that make them possible is worthwhile. One of the parameters most looked for to define the quality status of a vineyard is the degree Brix of its grapes, a quantity usually determined by direct measurement.

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Use of artificial intelligence for the prediction of microbial diseases of grapevine and optimisation of fungicide application

Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew (DM), and Uncinula necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM), are two of the main phytopathogenic microorganisms causing major economic losses in the primary sector, especially in the wine sector, by wilting bunches and leaves with a consequent decrease in the photosynthetic rate of the plant and in the annual yield. Currently, the most widespread methods for planning spraying are based on the 3-10 rule, which states that the first application should take place when: (i) the air temperature is greater than 10°C; (ii) shoots are equal or greater than 10 cm; and (iii) a minimum of 10 mm rainfall within 24–48 hours has occurred, or at the beginning of the bud break with periodic applications according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

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Deep learning based models for grapevine phenology

the phenological evolution is a crucial aspect of grapevine growth and development. Accurate detection of phenological stages can improve vineyard management, leading to better crop yield and quality traits. However, traditional methods of phenological tracking such as on-site observations are time-consuming and labour-intensive. This work proposes a scalable data-driven method to automatically detect key phenological stages of grapevines using satellite data. Our approach applies to vast areas because it solely relies on open and satellite data having global coverage without requiring any in-field data from weather stations or other sensors making the approach extensible to other areas.

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Mapping grape composition in the field using VIS/SWIR hyperspectral cameras mounted on a UTV

Assessing grape composition is critical in vineyard management. It is required to decide the harvest date and to optimize cultural practices toward the achievement of production goals. The grape composition is variable in time and space, as it is affected by the ripening process and depends on soil and climate conditions.

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Implementation of a deep learning-based approach for detecting and localising automatically grapevine leaves with downy mildew symptoms

Grapevine downy mildew is a disease of foliage caused by Oomycete Plasmopara viticola an endoparasite that develops inside grapevine organs and can infect virtually every green organ. Downy mildew is one of the most destructive diseases in wine-growing regions, drastically reducing yield and fruit quality. Traditional manual disease detection relies on farm experts. Human field scouting has been widely used for monitoring the disease progress, however, is costly, laborious, subjective, and often imprecise.

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Using NIR/SWIR hyperspectral camera mounted on a UAV to assess grapevine water status in a variably irrigated vineyard

Vineyards face climate change, increasing temperatures, and drought affecting vine water status. Water deficit affects plant physiology and can ultimately decrease yield and grape quality when it is not well managed. Monitoring vine water status and irrigation can help growers better manage their vineyards.

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Comparing vineyard irrigation management based in two different approaches: vegetation indices and SIMDualKc model

Water scarcity, high air temperatures, high vapor pressure deficit, and increasing frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events, namely heat waves, exert huge pressure on viticulture, as is the case of Mediterranean climates. Therefore, farmers rely more and more on irrigation to overcome these constraints. Deficit irrigation is a proved strategy to optimize irrigation efficiency and wine quality. The present study intends to demonstrate the application of precision techniques, namely remote sensing derived vegetation indices (VI) and an open source software, SIMDualKc, to compute crop evapotranspiration using the dual crop coefficient approach (Kcb + Ke), for deficit irrigation management.

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Biochemical responses of crimson seedless (Vitis vinifera) grapevines to altered micro climatic conditions and different water treatments in the Breede River Valley of South Africa

The South African Table grape industry has to expand to new markets with high quality niche products, but limited water availability threatens sustainable production. To overcome this challenge and to obtain high-quality products for the new markets, require constant technological advancement. Currently, limited available scientific information about growth balances and physiology and especially grape quality parameters, hinders technological advancement and thus efficient regulatory management of the morphological, chemical, and pathological status of table grapes, especially in response to abiotic factors.

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Deciphering grapevine trunk early molecular responses to P. minimum and P. chlamydospora in the presence of a commercial biocontrol agent (Trichoderma atroviride, Vintec®)

Esca, one of the main grapevine trunk diseases, is a complex and poorly understood disease. Phaeoacremonium minimum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, two of the main pathogens associated to this disease, are thought to be responsible for the first trunk infections. Little is known concerning grapevine trunk defenses during pathogen infection.

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Grapevine genotypes differ in xylem vessel occlusion after winter pruning 

Grapevines are continually wounded throughout their cultivation especially during winter pruning. Grapevines respond to wounding by occluding xylem vessels with gels or tyloses to limit pathogen attack and dehydration of the tissues. Although the production of xylem vessel occlusions has been studied in grapevine, to date we have no knowledge of whether different genotypes respond differently. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic variation in xylem vessel occulsions in five different scion genotypes pruned at different dates.

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Cordon height and deficit irrigation practices interact to affect yield and fruit quality of Cabernet Sauvignon and petite Sirah grown in a hot climate

Cabernet Sauvignon and Petite Sirah are the top red wine cultivars in CA, however, the hot climate in Fresno is not ideal for red Vitis Vinifera, particularly for berry color development. Mechanical pruning and irrigation were studied previously to significantly affect grapevine yield performance and berry quality. But there is lack of studies on cordon height and irrigation on mechanical pruned vineyard system.

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Identifying wild Vitis riparia Michx clones as a source of rootstock to mitigate vigour and acclimation/deacclimation cycles of the scion

Grapevine rootstocks have traditionally been chosen in order to manage scion vigour, soil pests and soil conditions. Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) has been in use since the turn of the 19th century, over 100 years and still a remarkably stable source of phylloxera (Daktulosphaeria vitifoliae Fitch) resistance. The original source material was probably collected near the Missouri/Mississippi river confluence, a mid-continental but more southerly location in the United States. It has been hypothesized that more northerly selections of V. riparia Michx might improve both fall acclimation rate and depth of the scion, thus mitigating late fall frost and midwinter freeze damage.

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The effects of perennial cover crop management on soil temperature and vine water status

The implications of perennial cover crop management on vine vigor and yield have been well documented. However, whereas multiple studies show that cover crop management affects grapevine dry matter production, water, and nutrient status, the specific effects of a new hybrid perennial cover crop on soil temperature and its relationship to vine water status in vineyards has not been explored. This study will compare 3 different perennial cover crop combinations and tillage practices with a no-till seeding of a new hybrid perennial, Poa bulbosa (Pb).

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How to improve the success of dead vine replacement: insights into the impacts of young plant‘s environment 

Grapevine faces multiple biotic and/or abiotic stresses, which are interrelated. Depending on their incidence, they can have a negative impact on the development and production of the plant, but also on its longevity, leading to vine dieback. One of the consequences of vine dieback on production is the increased replacement rate of dead or missing vines within a parcel.

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Manipulating grapevine bud fruitfulness

Bud fruitfulness is a key component of reproductive performance of grapevine. It plays a significant role in annual yield variation of vineyards as it is a prerequisite of crop production in the following season. Various exogenous and endogenous factors influencing the development of inflorescence primordia (IP) have been studied. However, the research on molecular genetic control of bud fruitfulness, especially how it interacts with environmental factors is still lacking. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of effects of temperature and light on grapevine bud fruitfulness during initiation and differentiation of IP.

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Response of different grapevine cultivars to water stress using a hydroscape approach

Viticulture worldwide is currently affected by the effects of climate change. This set of adverse phenomena lead to a deterioration of functional vine mechanisms, affecting growth, physiology and grape ripening, which may cause severe losses with respect to yield and quality. To prevent water stress and other abiotic factors from severely affecting its physiology, the vine’s response is to reduce transpiration and photosynthesis rates. This response varies depending on the cultivar and its ability to adapt to the environment. The hydroscape method is based on the internal regulation of water status in the plant. It has been recently used to classify grapevine genotypes according to their iso/anisohydric behavior when they are subjected to water stress conditions.

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Vineyard mulching offer many benefits beyond winter protection

Grapevines are susceptible to freezing damage at temperatures below -5°F during the winter season. Preventing winter injury to grapevines is a major challenge in many grape-producing regions. Conventional methods such as hilling-up soil over graft unions have been developed as winter protection methods for preventing vine loss. However, these practices have drawbacks such as soil erosion, vine damage and crown gall development.

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