GIESCO 2023

IVES 9 Tag: GIESCO 2023

Water deficit impacts grape development without dramatically changing thiol precursor levels

The use of new fungus disease-tolerant grapevine varieties is a long-term and promising solution to reduce chemical input in viticulture. However, little is known about the effects of water deficit (WD) on the thiol aromatic potential of new varieties coming up from breeding programs. Varietal thiols such as 3-sulfanylhexan-ol (3SH), 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) and their derivatives are powerful aromatic compounds present in wines coming from odorless precursors in grapes, and could contribute to the wine typicity of such varieties.

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Genotypic differences in early-stage root architectural traits and consequences for water uptake in three grapevine rootstocks differing in drought tolerance

Root architecture (RSA), the spatial-temporal arrangement of a root system in soil, is essential for edaphic resources acquisition by the plant, and thus contributes largely to its productivity and adaptation to environmental stresses, particularly soil water deficit. In grafted grapevine, while the degree of drought tolerance induced by the rootstock has been well documented in the vineyard, information about the underlying physiological processes, particularly at the root level, is scarce, due to the inherent difficulties in observing large root systems in situ. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the phenotypic differences in traits related to root distribution and morphology along the substrate profile in different Vitis rootstocks during early growth, (ii) to assess the plasticity of these traits to soil water deficit and (iii) to quantify their relationships with plant water uptake.

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Managing precision irrigation in vineyards: hydraulic and molecular signaling in eight grapevine varieties

Understanding the physiological and molecular bases of grapevine responses to mild to moderate water deficits is fundamental to optimize vineyard irrigation management and identify the most suitable varieties. In Mediterranean regions, the higher frequency of heat waves and droughts highlights the importance of precision irrigation to meet vine water demands and demonstrates the necessity for a deeper understanding of the different physiological responses among varieties under water stress. In this context, previous reports show an interplay between stomatal regulation of transpiration and changes in leaf hydraulic conductivity, also with the involvement of aquaporins (AQPs), particularly under water stress. However, how those signaling mechanisms are regulated in different grapevine varieties along phenological phases is unclear.

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High and extreme high temperature effects on shiraz berry composition 

Climate change is leading to a rise in average temperature and in the frequency and severity of heatwaves, and is already significantly disturbing grapevine phenology and berry composition. With the evolution of the weather of Australian grape growing regions that are already warm and hot, flavonoids, for which biosynthesis depends on bunch microclimate, are expected to be impacted. These compounds include anthocyanins and tannins which contribute substantially to grape and wine quality. The goals of this project were to determine if berry tannin accumulation is sensitive to high temperature and to enhance knowledge on upper temperature limits for viable wine production, in turn informing critical timing for mitigation strategies.

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Dialing in grapevine water stress indicators to better reflect holistic stress responses

Current remote sensing strategies rely heavily on reflectance data and energy balance modelling using thermal imagery to estimate crop water use and stress. These approaches show great promise for driving precision management decisions, but still require work to better understand how detected changes relate to meaningful physiological changes. Under water stress, grapevines exhibit a range of responses involving both biological and physical changes within leaves and canopies.

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Delaying grapevine budbreak and/or phenological stages

In the current climatic context, with milder winters leading to earlier budburst in most wine regions, vines are exposed to the risk of spring frosts for a longer period. Depending on the year, frost can lead to yield losses of between 20 and 100 %, jeopardizing the economic survival of wine estates. In addition, by destroying young shoots, spring frosts can impact the following season’s production, by reducing the number of canes available for pruning, for example. Late pruning is one method to combat spring frosts.

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Vineyard innovative tools based on the integration of earth observation services and in-field sensors (VitiGEOSS project)

Climate change is having an unprecedented impact on the wine industry, which is one of the major agricultural sectors around the world. Global warming, combined with the variation in rainfall patterns and the increase in frequency of extreme weather events, is significantly influencing vine physiology and exposing, more frequently, plants to severe biotic and abiotic stresses. This represents a challenge for viticulturists who need to take complex decisions to adjust vineyard management and achieve oenological goals.

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Management of grapevine water status with the DSS Vintel® provides evidence of sustainable irrigation strategies while maintaining wine quality of Pinot gris in Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, NE italy

Deficit irrigation strategies can be valuable means to improve grape quality while saving important amounts of water. A simple way to use deficit irrigation can be based on irrigating a vineyard with a determined level of crop evapotranspiration. Using a precise physiological parameter indicating water status, irrigation could be managed to maintain a specific pre-dawn leaf water potential.

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Meso-scale geostatistical analysis: a method for improving experimental design

The growing region of Barolo DOCG certified wines is topographically complex. The region is famous for this complexity and for the associated terroir driven Nebbiolo grapes and wines derived distinctly from this varietal. Although it is recognized that the Barolo area is unusual topographically and it is assumed that this unusual topography lends to the inherit terroir, the specifics of this relationship are less well defined.

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Image based vineyard yield prediction using empirical models to estimate bunch occlusion by leaves

Vineyard yield estimation brings several advantages to the entire wine industry. It can provide useful information to support decision making regarding bunch thinning practices, harvest logistics and marketing strategies, as well as to manage stored wine and cellar tanks allocation. Today, this estimation is performed mainly using manual methods based on destructive bunch sampling.

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Hyperspectral imaging for the appraisal of varietal aroma composition along maturation in intact Vitis vinifera L. Tempranillo Blanco berries

The knowledge of the grape aromatic composition during ripening provides very important information for winegrowers, who may carry out different viticultural practices, or determine the harvest date more accurately. However, there are currently no tools that allow this measurement to be carried out in a non-invasive and rapid way. For this reason, the aim of this work was to design a non-invasive methodology, based on hyperspectral imaging to estimate the aromatic composition and total soluble solids (TSS) of Tempranillo Blanco berries during ripening.

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Counting grape bunches using deep learning under different fruit and leaf occlusion conditions

Yield estimation is very important for the wine industry since provides useful information for vineyard and winery management. The early yield estimation of the grapevine provides information to winegrowers in making management decisions to achieve a better quantity and quality of grapes. In general, yield forecasts are based on destructive sampling of bunches and manual counting of berries per bunch and bunches per vine.

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New satellite-based sampling protocols for grapevine nutrient monitoring

Extension specialists often recommend nutrient monitoring through leaf blade or petiole sampling twice a season for each vineyard block. However, due to the time and labor required to collect a large, random sample, many growers complete the task infrequently or incorrectly. Readily available remote sensing images capture the vineyard variability at both spatial and temporal scales, which can capture canopy and soil variability and be used to guide growers to representative sampling locations.

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Using the fraction of transpirable soil water to estimate grapevine leaf water potential: comparing the classical statistical regression approach to machine learning algorithms

Weather uncertainty is forcing Mediterranean winegrowers to adopt new irrigation strategies to cope with water scarcity while ensuring a sustainable yield and improved berry and wine quality standards. Therefore, more accurate and high-resolution monitoring of soil water content and vine water status is a major concern. Leaf water potential measured at pre-dawn (PD) is considered to be in equilibrium with soil water potential and is highly correlated with soil water content at the soil depth where roots extract water.

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Regenerative agricultural approaches to improve ecosystem services in Mediterranean vineyards

REVINE is a 3 year European projected funded by PRIMA programme which proposes the adoption of regenerative agriculture practices with an innovative and original perspective, in order to improve the resilience of vineyards to climate change in the Mediterranean area. The potential for innovation lies in developing and combining new approaches that make agriculture more environmentally sustainable and enable a circular economy capable of improving farmers’ incomes. Primarily REVINE aims to improve soil health and biodiversity by promoting the multiplication of soil saprophytic microorganisms and the presence of useful microorganisms linked to the life cycle of the plant, such as rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi (PGPF) that promote plant growth which, in addition to increasing plant performance, increase tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses.

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Re-examination and meta-analysis of previous research as a tool to evaluate the suitability of rootstocks in adaptation to global change. A study case from Spanish viticulture

Meta-analysis (MA) is a method that allows statistical synthesis of the results of several similar individual studies (Figure 1). This term was introduced by Glass in 1976 as a useful tool for the scientific community to pool and summarise the enormous amount of information collected in the literature.

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Stem growth disorder and xylem anatomy modifications during esca pathogenesis in grapevines

Esca is a grapevine vascular disease with detrimental consequences on vineyard yield and longevity. Recently, esca leaf symptom development has been shown to result in the occlusion of xylem vessels by tyloses in leaves and stems, leading to hydraulic failure. However, little is known regarding the response of xylem anatomy and stem growth to esca in different varieties . Here we studied the impact of esca leaf symptom development on grapevine physiology, stem growth, and xylem anatomy in two widespread cultivars, Cabernet sauvignon and Sauvignon blanc.

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Dynamic agrivoltaics, climate protection for grapevine driven by artificial intelligence

The year-on-year rise in temperatures and the increase in extreme weather events due to climate change are already having an impact on agriculture. Among the perennial fruit species, grapevine is already negatively impacted by these events through an acceleration of its phenology, more damage from late frosts or through an increase in the sugar level of the berries (and therefore the alcoholic degree of the wine) and a decrease of acidity, impacting the wine quality. Sun’Agri, in partnership with INRAE, Chambre d’agriculture du Vaucluse, Chambre d’agriculture des Pyrénées-Orientales and IFV, developed a protection system based on dynamic agrivoltaics to protect grapevine. It consists of photovoltaic solar panels positioned above the crop, high enough not to impede the passage of agricultural machinery, and tiltable from +/- 90° to adjust the level of shading on the vineyard. These smart louvers, driven by artificial intelligence (physical models & plant growth models), are steered according to the plant’s needs and provide real climate protection.

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