Many fleshy fruit, including the grape berry, exhibit a double‐sigmoid growth (DSG) pattern. Identification of the curious DSG habit has long been attributed to Connors’ (1919) work with peaches
In the last years the application of genomic tools to the analysis of gene expression during grape berry development generated a huge amount of transcriptomic data
Grape quality is a complex trait that mainly refers to berry chemical composition, including sugars, organic acids, phenolics, aroma and aroma precursor compounds.
After the onset of grape berry ripening, phloem unloading follows an apoplasmic route into the mesocarp tissue. In the apoplast, most of the unloaded sucrose is cleaved by cell wall invertases
From average to individual fruit, a paradigm shift for accurate analysis of water accumulation and primary metabolism in developing berries
Presentknowledge about grape development is mainly driven by the premise that a typical berry would follow the same kinetics as the population average
Firmness of the grapes. Mechanical tests and definition of indices. Study of the evolution of berry skin resistance during alcoholic fermentation
The mechanical strength or firmness of a fruit is considered an important parameter to characterize its state of maturity or conservation, as other parameters such as sugar level or color.
Grape ripening and wine style: synchronized evolution of aromatic composition of shiraz wines from hot and temperate climates of Australia
Grape ripening is a process driven by the interactions between grapevine genotypes and environmental factors. Grape composition is largely responsible for the production
Grapevine response to water deficit has been extensively studied. Nevertheless, debate still exists regarding some physiology adoption under drought
Consistency of the hydraulic traits and stomatal responses in grapevines with contrasting hydraulic vulnerability
Different from wild species in arid and semiarid conditions, cultivated species are very sensitive to drought and, beyond some stress thresholds, food production is not possible
Optical visualization of embolism spread in drought‐induced leaves: revealing differences across three grapevine genotypes
‐Evaluation of xylem embolism is an important challenge in identifying drought tolerant genotypes within the context of climate change.
Agroscope is investigating the impact of yield on nitrogen (N) partitioning in grapevine and on must composition. The mechanism of N assimilation
The nutrient reserves in the grapevine perennial structure perform a critical role in supplying the grapevine with nutrients
Bio‐metaethics viticulture proposed by the Giesco. Direct charter with producers. Example of evaluation of training systems
The key points of the current GiESCO charter ‘BIO‐MetaEthics’ are exposed. The new development in cooperation with Giovanni Cargnello is to apply the principles and the content into the practice by establishing a direct contract with producers and other actors of the wine sector. An evaluation sheet is proposed and tested in a new advanced vineyard. For illustrating the methodology of evaluation, the example of the choice of the training systems is detailed on a wide range of situations.
ePROSECCO: Historical, cultural, applied philosophy analysis and process, product and certification innovation, for the “sustainable original progress and promotion 4.1c” of a historic and famous territory and wine
According to the algorithm "A step back towards the future 4.1C", (Cargnello,1986a, 1987d, 1988a.b, 1991, 1993, 1994b, 1995, 1999a.e, 2000b, 2007c, 2008a, 2009d, 2013; and according to the principles of "Charter of Sustainable Viticulture BIO‐MetaEthics 4.1CC" of GiESCO (Carbonneau and Cargnello, 2003 2015, 2017), the historical, applied philosophy and productive analysis connected to the innovations and to the "Certification of the Universal Holistic MetaEthical Sustainability 4.1C" “indexed new global production model 4.1C” has always been fundamental, especially for the "Prosecco Territory" and for the "Prosecco Wine" to design and implement their synergistic future "Sustainable and Certificable 4.1CC" according to the principles of the "Charter of Sustainable Viticulture BIO‐MetaEthics 4.1CC" by the GiESCO (Carbonneau and Cargnello, lc, Cargnello et Carbonneau, 2007, 2018), and of the Conegliano Campus 5.1C. (Cargnello, lc). Nowadays, people think that Prosecco is a wine from the Veneto Region (from Conegliano and Valdobbiadene in particular), while it comes from Friuli‐Venezia Giulia Region (in North Eastern Italy, such as Veneto) more precisely from “Prosecco” in the Municipality of Trieste (TS‐Italy), as documented in 1382 and in 1548, when Pier Andrea Mattioli, described "that ancient wine, which is born in Prosecco", as a wine with the following characteristics "thin, clear, shiny, golden, odorous and pleasant to taste». In 1888 at the “Wine Fair” of Trieste there were the "Sparkling wine Prosecco" by Giovanni Balanc, by Giuseppe Klampferer and that one by Marino Luxa. In the 19th century, many expressed their appreciation for the "Prosecco" of Trieste. In order to implement intra and extra territorial and cross‐border relations, as well as, the "Certification of: Products, Companies, Territory, Bio‐MétaÉthique District 4.1C" of Prosecco, a series of activities and researches were conducted in 8 companies: 5 in the "Territory of Prosecco" (TS) in which the principles of "Charter of Sustainable Viticulture BIO‐MetaEthics 4.1CC" of GiESCO (Carbonneau and Cargnello, lc) have been successfully applied. In particolar: 1‐ new and original "Sustainable 4.1C global production model" developed also to prevent the problems caused by wild boar, roe deer, and birds while safeguarding their "psychophysical wellness", as well as the "psychophysical wellness 4.1C" of the macro and micro flora and fauna, of the biodiversity, of the landscape, etc. (Cargnello, lc), 1.2‐ chemical weed control and “Non MetaEthics 4.1C” processing with the total grass growing of the ground without or with mowing, better if it is manual to protect grass, air and soil, 2‐ recovery of "Historic": land, vineyards, vines, biodiversity, landscapes, productions, products, … , 3‐ production of the famous "Prosekar, also rosé, of Prosecco" and "Prosecco di Prosecco", according to "A step back towards the future 4.1C" 4‐ to offer a deserved psychophysical well‐being to the "Prosecco Territory" and entrepreneurs.