Two of the most harmful microbial metabolites for human health that can be present in wines and either fermented or raw foods are biogenic amines (BA) and ochratoxine A (OTA). Winemakers are aware of the need to avoid their presence in wine by using different strategies, one of them is the use of enzymes. Some recombinant laccases have been characterized and revealed as potential tools to degrade these toxic compounds in wine, specifically biogenic amines.
Effect of spray with autochthonous Trichoderma strains and its secondary metabolites on the quality of Tempranillo grape
Trichoderma is one of the most widely used fungal biocontrol agents on vineyards due to its multiple benefits on this crop, such as its fungicidal and growth promoting capacity. In this work, we have analyzed the effect on the concentration of nutrients in grapevine leaves and on the quality of the grape must after spraying an autochthonous strain of Trichoderma harzianum and one of the main secondary metabolites produced by this genus, 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6PP).
The universalization in wine production has been restricting the imprint of terroir in regional wines, resulting in loss of typicity. Microbes are the main driving force in wine production, conducting fermentation and originating a myriad of metabolites that underly wine aroma. Grape berries harbor an ecological niche composed of filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria, which are influenced by the ripening stage, cultivar and region. The research project GrapeMicrobiota gathers a consortium from University of Zaragoza, University of Minho and University of Tours and aims at the isolation of native yeast strains from berries of the wine region Douro, UNESCO World Heritage, towards the production of wines that stand out in the market for their authenticity and for reflecting their region of origin in their aroma.
The wine industry is increasing the demand for indigenous yeasts adapted to the terroir to produce unique wines that reflect the distinctive characteristics of each region. In our group, we have identified and characterized 60 native yeast strains isolated from a vineyard in Maldonado-Uruguay, in which three strains stood out: Saccharomyces cerevisiae T193FS, Saturnispora diversa T191FS, and Starmerella bacillaris T193MS. Their oenological potential was evaluated at a semi-pilot scale in Tannat must vinification in the wine cellar to have a more precise and representative evaluation of the final product.
Discovering the process of noble rot: fungal ecology of grape berries during the noble rot transformation in different vineyards of the Tokaj wine region
Botrytis cinerea, a well-known grapevine pathogen, has more than 1200 host plants causing grey rot in grapevine berries. However, it can also result in a desirable phenomenon called noble rot under specific microclimate conditions. An extraordinary demonstration of this natural process can be observed in the creation of aszú wines within Hungary's Tokaj wine region. Beside B. cinerea other fungi and yeasts are involved in the secondary metabolic development of the grape berry which contributes to the sensory and analytical characterization of noble rot wines.
This essay was aimed to describe the clonal diversity of Oenococcus oeni in the malolactic fermentation of the carbonic maceration (CM) winemaking. The free and the pressed liquids from CM were sampled and compared to the wine from a standard winemaking with previous destemming and crushing (DC) of grapes . O. oeni strain typification was performed by PFGE as González-Arenzana et al. described (2014) . Results showed that 13 genotypes, referred as to letters, were distinguished from the 49 isolated strains, meaning the genotype “a” the 27%, the “b” the 14%, the “c” the 12%, the “d and e” the 10 % each other, and the remaining ones less than the 8% each one.
Brettanomyces yeast can negatively impact the quality and stability of wines, posing a significant challenge to winemakers.  This study aims to develop novel management practices to limit Brettanomyces impact on wines by evaluating the effectiveness of electrodialysis (ED) technology in removing magnesium (Mg2+) from wine to prevent the development of Brettanomyces yeast. The ED technique utilizes charged membranes to extract ions from the wine, and it is considered an alternative to cold stabilization that requires less energy. 
[lwp_divi_breadcrumbs home_text="IVES" use_before_icon="on" before_icon="||divi||400" module_id="publication-ariane" _builder_version="4.20.4" _module_preset="default" module_text_align="center" module_font_size="16px" text_orientation="center"...
Design of microbial consortia to improve the production of aromatic amino acid derived compounds during wine fermentation
Wine contains secondary metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids (AADC), which can determine quality, stability and bioactivity. Several yeast species, as well as some lactic acid bacteria (LAB), can contribute in the production of these aromatic compounds. Winemaking should be studied as a series of microbial interactions, that work as an interconnected network, and can determine the metabolic and analytical profiles of wine. The aim of this work was to select microorganisms (yeast and LAB) based on their potential to produce AADC compounds, such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, and design a microbial consortium that could increase the production of these AADC compounds in wines.
The presence of acetic acid bacteria in wine can lead to the appearance of acetic acid at concentrations above the perception threshold, causing the wine rejection by the consumer. During the winemaking process, avoiding the presence of acetic acid bacteria is very difficult, as there is always a residual population accompanying the wine, and the problem arises with the significant development of these microorganisms that metabolizes large amounts of acetic acid.
The concern of wineries to control the presence of acetic acid bacteria in wines during their conservation is due to the absence of simple and effective analyses that allow the detection of these microorganisms in the initial stages.
The study conducted various fermentations of different grape juices using various strains of Lachancea thermotolerans and one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because of the new conditions caused by climate change, wine acidity must be influenced as well as the volatile profile. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts such as L. thermotolerans are real options to mitigate the impact of climate change in wine production.
Effect of pH and ethanol on Lactiplantibacillus plantarum in red must fermentation: potential use of wine lees
Wine is the result of the alcoholic fermentation (AF) of grape must. Besides AF, wine can also undergo the malolactic fermentation (MLF) driven out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Among LAB, Oenococcus oeni and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum are the dominant species in wine. Even if O. oeni is the most common LAB undergoing MLF in wine, due to its high tolerance to wine conditions, L. plantarum can be used to undergo MLF in must. The moderate tolerance of L. plantarum to low pH and ethanol, may compromise the fermentative process in harsh wines.
Dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae population in spontaneous fermentations from Granxa D’Outeiro terroir (DOP Ribeiro, NW Spain)
Granxa D’Outeiro is a recovered ancient vineyard located in the heart of DOP Ribeiro, where traditional white grapevine varieties are growing under sustainable management. Spontaneous fermentations using grape must from Treixadura, Albariño, Lado, Godello, and Loureira varieties were carried out at experimental winery of Evega. Yeasts were isolated from must and at different stages of fermentation. Those colonies belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized at strain level by mDNA-RFLPs.
The yeast ecosystem in grape musts is quite broad and depends on the region and the health of the grapes. Within this, there are yeasts that can generate fermentative deviations and/or cause defects in the wine. It is very important to address this issue because there are significant economic losses in the wine industry when the fermentation process and/or the organoleptic characteristics of the wine are negatively affected, even more today since climate change has a marked effect on the composition of this ecosystem. The aim of this work is to characterize the behavior regarding detrimental oenological features of potential spoilage yeasts isolated from viticultural environments.
Antagonistic yeasts applied to wine grapes must be compatible with the thereafter winemaking process, avoiding competition with the fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae or affecting wine flavour. Therefore, fifteen epiphytic yeasts (6 Metschnikowia sp., 6 Hanseniaspora uvarum, 3 Starmerella bacillaris) previously selected for its biocontrol ability against Alternaria on wine grapes were evaluate for possible competition with S. cerevisiae by the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) employing YNB agar media with 10 mM of 17 different carbonate sources present in wine grapes (proline, asparagine, alanine, glutamic acid, tirosine, arginine, lisine, methionine, glicine, malic acid, tartaric acid, fructose, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose, sucrose, glucose).