Pomace is one of the main residues generated by the wine industry and represents an environmental problem. Currently, there is a growing interest in the revaluation of these products because different bioactive compounds can be obtained from them, such as polyphenols, grape seed oils and polysaccharides. Red grape pomace can be an important source of polysaccharides, but they are currently little studied and even less with viable and environmental extraction processes (green extraction), such as flash extraction. The residual amount of the fraction rich in pectin (residual pulp) and component rich in hemicellulose in the pomace and the strength of association of the pectin with the cellulose-xyloglucan network depend on the degree of extractability of the polysaccharides in red winemaking and on the winemaking conditions.
Preliminary study of extraction of polysaccharides from pomace by high powered ultrasonic combined with enzymes
Red grape pomace can be an important source of polysaccharides, but currently they are little studied and even less with viable and environmental extraction processes (green extraction). These green techniques must be able to break the cell wall so that the compounds contained in the cells, including polysaccharides, are released and can have a great influence on extraction yields, the chemical structure of polysaccharides and applications in wines. Amongst the emerging green techniques most applied to the extraction of bioactive compounds, such as polysaccharides, high-power ultrasound (US) and enzyme-assisted extraction stand out.
Comparison of ancestral and traditional methods in the elaboration of sparkling wines; preliminary results
Top quality sparkling wines (SW) are mostly produced using the traditional method that implies a second fermentation into the bottle. That is the case of sparkling wines of reputed AOC such as Champagne, Cava or Franciacorta. However, it seems that the first SW was elaborated using the ancestral method in which only one fermentation takes place. That is the case of the classical SW from the AOC Blanquette de Limoux. In both cases, SW age in the bottle during some time in contact with lees favoring yeast’s autolysis. There is a lot of information about traditional method but only few exists about ancestral method. The aim of this work was to compare SW made by the ancestral method with SW made by the traditional method.
Effect of different plant fibers on the elimination of undesirable compounds in red wine. Correlation with its polysaccharide composition
The presence of undesirable compounds in wines, such as OTA, biogenic amines and pesticides residues, affects wine quality and can cause health problems for the consumer. The main tool that a winemaker has to reduce their content in the wine is fining. However, some of the fining agents commonly used in the winery can cause allergies or even increase the protein content in the wine, increasing the turbidity. To avoid these problems, the use of plant fibers may be an alternative, such as those from grape pomace or other plant origins.
In the Bordeaux vineyards, press wine represents approximately 15% of the total volume of wine produced. Valuing this large volume of wine is necessary from an economic point of view, but also because of their organoleptic contribution to the blend, and their contribution to the construction of wines for laying down. Therefore, this study was developed considering the lack of recent scientific knowledge on the composition of red press wines. The aim of this study is to establish an initial assessment of their chemical composition including aromatic compounds and a phenolic part.
Phenolic extraction and dissolved oxygen concentration during red wines fermentations with Airmixig M.I.™
During red wine fermentation, the extraction of phenolics compounds and sufficient oxygen provision are critical for wine quality [1,2]. In this trial, we aimed at evaluating the kinetics of phenolic extraction and dissolved oxygen during red wine fermentations using the airmixing system. Twenty lots of red grape musts were fermented in 300.000 L tanks, equipped with airmixing, using two injection regimes (i.e., high and low intensity, and high and low daily frequency). An oxygen analyzer was introduced into the tanks in order to record the concentration of dissolved oxygen over time.
Grapes are one of the world’s primary fruit crops, and pruning activities generate high amounts of annual wood wastes . These pruning shoots contain valuable phenolic compounds and could have numerous potential applications [1,2]. Consequently, the aim of this work was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of vine pruning residues with potential as enological additives. For this purpose, grapevine shoots from 12 varieties grown in Chile were collected during the winter of 2021.
The potential of some native varieties of Argentina for the production of sparkling wines. Effect of lees contact time
Grapevine varieties from South-America, commonly known as criollas, originated because of the natural crossbreeding of grapevine varieties brought by the Spaniards. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of some varieties to produce sparkling wines considering the effect of lees contact time. The following varieties were used: Moscatel Rosado, Criolla Chica, Pedro Gimenez, Blanca Oval, Canelón, and the European variety Chardonnay (control), planted in the ampelographic collection of EEA Mendoza INTA (Argentina). Pilot-scale vinifications were carried out to obtain the base wines, in 20 L glass containers. The second fermentation was performed through the traditional method.
Options to replace or reduce the sulphite content in Tannat red wines produced with minimal intervention
Several Uruguayan wineries have begun to produce wines with minimal intervention, to increase the sustainability of their vineyards and wines. These wines are characterized by the minimum intervention in the management of the vineyard, its harvest, vinification, conservation and aging1,2. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is not used or is used in reduced doses, although chitosan can be substituted or supplemented1. The objective of this research is to evaluate SO2 reduction or replacement options adapted to the production of Tannat red wines with minimal intervention. Vinification of the Tannat grapes with autochthonous yeasts (LN) was carried out during the 2023 vintage.
Polyphenol content of cork granulates at different steps of the manufacturing process of microagglomerated stoppers treated with supercritical CO2 used for wine bottling
The wine closure industry is mainly divided into three categories: screw caps, synthetic closures, and cork-based closures. Among this latter, microagglomerated cork stoppers treated with supercritical CO2 are now widely used, especially to avoid cork taint contaminations. They are designed with cork granules obtained from cork offcuts of the punching process during the natural cork stoppers production. A previous study showed that these stoppers released fewer polyphenols in 12 % (v/v) hydroalcoholic solution than natural cork stoppers.
The vinification by Carbonic maceration (CM) involves the process whereby the whole bunches are subjected to anaerobic conditions during several days. In this anaerobic condition, the grape endogenous enzymes begin an intracellular fermentation. This situation favors that whole grapes split open and release their juice into the tank, increasing the liquid phase that is fermented by yeasts . Then, two types of wines are obtained; one from the free-run liquid in the tank (FCM) and other from the liquid after pressing the whole grape bunches (PCM). PCM wines are recognized as high quality young wines because their fruity and floral aromas that although they are very intense at the end of the winemaking they gradually disappear during conservation.
Influence of polysaccharide extracts from wine by-products on the volatile composition of sparkling white wines
In the production of sparkling wines, during the second fermentation, mannoproteins are released by yeast autolysis, which affect the quality of the wines. The effect of mannoproteins has been extensively studied, and may affect aroma and foam quality. However, there are no studies on the effect of other polysaccharides such as those from grapes. Considering the large production of waste from the wine industry, it was proposed to obtain polysaccharide-rich extracts from some of these by-products.
The use of barrels is a practice that improves the quality of wines. The porous structure of wood favors the accumulation of microorganisms that can deteriorate the quality of wines so that barrel cleaning and sanitizing treatments are essential. The burning of sulphur discs has been the most common practice in winemaking because ots biocide effect. Nevertheless, its effectiveness is still insufficient and it is harmful for human health.
Addition of glutathione-rich inactivated yeasts to white musts: effects on wine composition and sensory quality
Glutathione plays a key role in preventing some oxidative processes during winemaking. This molecule limits the must enzymatic oxidation, reacts with caffeic acid and generates a colourless compound that prevents subsequent browning. It also has a protective effect on wine aroma, preventing the oxidation of the volatile compounds with a high sensory impact.
Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH): a technique that allows the reduction of SO2 in winemaking
Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH) is an innovative, efficient and non-thermal technology that can be applied at different stages in winemaking in order to reduce or avoid the use of sulphites. During 2022 vintage, a batch of Xarel·lo must was processed by UHPH at 300 MPa with an inlet temperature (Ti) of 4 ºC. In order to verify the influence of the UHPH treatment in wine characteristics, alcoholic fermentations with this must (UHPH) were carried out and compared with a control batch (without SO2 addition (C)) and a sulphited batch, in which 60 mg/L of total SO2 (SO2) were added.