Macrowine 2021

Grapevine diversity and viticultural practices for sustainable grape growing

Temperature variability inside a wine production area and its effect on vine phenology and grape ripening. An example from the Saint-Emilion-Pomerol

AIM: the aim of this study was to develop a method for fine-scale temperature zoning. The effect of temperature variability on vine phenology and grape composition was assessed in the production area of Saint-Emilion, Pomerol and their satellite appellations (Bordeaux, France). METHODS: 90 temperature sensors were set up inside the ...
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Foliar application of specific inactivated yeast to enhance the varietal aroma precursors accumulation on cv. Traminer

AIM: The production of grapes with a balanced composition is one of the main goals that agronomists and oenologists pursue to produce premium quality wines. The gap between technological (sugar/acid ratio) and aromatic maturity is expanding due to the increasing temperature and lack of rainfall during the ripening phase. In ...
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Influence on grape aroma of nitrogen compounds and elicitors foliar applications in vineyards

AIM: The grape volatile compounds determine the wine quality and typicity [1]. Thus, looking for agronomic tools to improve its composition it is of great interest in the sector [2]. The aim of this work was to study the effects of several foliar applications in Garnacha, Tempranillo, and Graciano grapevines ...
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Preliminary evaluation of agronomic and enological properties of preselected grapevine clones of ‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Graciano’ in DOCa Rioja (Spain)

AIM. Cultivation of a few number of clones is causing the loss of vineyard biodiversity, resulting in the disappearance of biotypes that could be of interest to face future challenges, such as climate change or appearance of new pests. This topic is so relevant that OIV dedicated a recent resolution ...
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Is it possible to approximate the technological and phenolic maturity of grapes by foliar application of elicitors?

AIM: The increase in the temperature and the more severe water stress conditions, trends observed in recent years as a consequence of climate change, are leading a mismatch between the technological and phenolic maturity of grapes [1]. As a strategy to face this situation, the use of apatite (Ap) nanoparticles ...
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Microbial ecology from vineyard to consumption

Screening of aroma metabolites within a set of 90 Saccharomyces strains

Currently, the main demand in the global wine market relies on products with unique flavour profiles, character, and typicity, and the metabolism of yeasts greatly influences the organoleptic properties of wines. Therefore, the natural diversity of Saccharomyces strains rises in interest over the last decade, but a large part of this phenotypic ...
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Effect of nitrogen content on fermentation kinetics and aroma profile of assyrtiko wine

Today, there is need to design, produce and label terroir wines, with unique organoleptic properties and more “attractive to consumers”. For this purpose, two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (Sa and Sb) isolated during spontaneous fermentations were used for white wine production from the Assyrtiko grape of Santorini. A third commercial strain was used ...
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Influence of coinoculation of L. plantarum and O. oeni on the color and composition of Tempranillo wines

AIM: The aim of this research was to determine the influence of performing malolactic fermentation (MLF) of Tempranillo wines by coinoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum or Oenococcus oeni and Saccharomycescerevisiae on the composition and color of the final wines in comparison with sequential inoculation with Oenococcus oeni and spontaneous MLF. METHODS: Around 1500 Kg of Tempranillo grapes from Pagos ...
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Bioprotective effect of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in wines made without SO2

The sulphur dioxide (SO2) is the most widely used additive in the wine industry because of its preservative action. However, in recent years the number of wineries that produce wines without SO2 has increased significantly because its allergenic character. The production of SO2-free wines may lead to the development of different ...
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Effect of environmentally friendly vineyard protection strategies on yeast ecology during fermentation

AIM: Currently, an increasing concern from governments and consumers about environmental sustainability of wine production provides new challenges for innovation in wine industry. Accordingly, the application of more-environmentally friendly vineyard treatments against fungal diseases (powdery and downy mildew) could have a cascading impact on yeast ecology of wine production. METHODS: ...
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Novel tools and strategies for precision and sustainable varietal and regional enology

Gamay and Gamaret winemaking processes using stems: impact on the wine chemical and organoleptic characteristics

AIM: Stalks are empirically known to bring many benefits to the wine such as alcoholic reduction, color protection or improvement of the tannic intensity. Not much used on Swiss grape varieties, the aim of this study was to identify the relevance of using this type of winemaking in the case ...
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Genetic traceability of ‘Nebbiolo’ musts and wines by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays

AIM: ‘Nebbiolo’ (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most ancient and prestigious Italian grape cultivars. It is renowned for its use in producing monovarietal high-quality red wines, such Barolo and Barbaresco. Wine quality and value can be heavily modified if cultivars other than those allowed are employed. The fight ...
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Inhibitory effect of sulfur dioxide, ascorbic acid and glutathione on browning caused by laccase activity

AIM: The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effect of the three most frequently used wine antioxidants – sulfur dioxide, ascorbic acid and glutathione – on the kinetics of browning caused by Botrytis cinerea laccase using a grape juice synthetic model in which (-)-epicatechin was the substrate. ...
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Impact and comprehension of nitrogen and lipid nutrition on the production of fermentative aromas with different S. Cerevisiae yeasts used for spirits

In the Cognac appellation, the production of white wines is almost exclusively dedicated to elaborate Charentaise eaux-de-vie. In this sense, the quality of Cognac eaux-de-vie intrinsically depends on the quality of the base wines subjected to the distillation stage. In this context, the production of these base wines differs from ...
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Does bioprotection by adding yeasts present antioxydant properties?

AIM: The bioprotection by adding yeasts is an emerging sulfur dioxide alternative. Sulfur dioxide is a chemical adjuvant used for its antiseptic, antioxidasic and antioxidant properties. Faced with the societal demand (Pérès et al., 2018) and considering the proven human risks associated with the total doses of sulfur dioxide (SO2) ...
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Wine longevity and shelf-life

Red wine oxidation: oxygen consumption kinetics and high resolution uplc-ms analysis

Oxygen is playing a major role in wine ageing and conservation. Many chemical oxidation reactions occur but they are difficult to follow due to their slow reaction times and the numerous resulting reaction products. There is a need for global and rapid in vitro tests to predict wine oxidation kinetics. ...
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Shades of shading: chemical and sensory evaluation of riesling grown under various shading techniques

AIM: Sun exposure is needed for balanced grape ripening and sugar accumulation but is also one of the main drivers for a premature Riesling ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of both intensity and quality of light in the vineyard on key Riesling grape and ...
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Yeast interactions in chardonnay wine fermentation: impact of different yeast species using ultra high resolution mass spectrometry

AIM: During alcoholic fermentation, when yeasts grow simultaneously, they often do not coexist passively and in most cases interact with each others [1]. They interact by roducing unpredictable compounds an fermentation products that can affect the chemical composition of the wine and therfore alter its aromatic and sensory profile [1, ...
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Wine archeochemistry: a multiplatform analytical approach to chemically profile shipwreck wines

AIM: The Cape of Storms (also known as Cape of Good Hope) is renowned for harbouring a multitude of shipwrecks due to the inherent treacherous coastline and blistering storms. One such shipwreck is the English East Indiaman Colebrooke, wrecked in False Bay, South Africa, in 1778. A discovery on the ...
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The influence of initial phenolic content on the outcome of pinot noir wine microoxygenation

Over the years, microoxygenation (MOX) has become a popular vinification technique to improve wine sensory qualities. However, among the impacting factors reported, only one published study (Cano-López et al. 2008) investigated the effects of initial phenolic content on wines undergoing MOX. The present study aims to establish the importance of ...
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Chemical diversity of 'special' wine styles: fortified wines, passito style, botrytized and ice wines, orange wines, sparkling wines

Guyot or pergola for dehydration of Rondinella grape

AIM: Pergola veronese is the most important vine training system in Valpolicella area but Guyot in the last decades is diffusing. Rondinella is one of the three most important varieties to make Amarone wine. In this study we compared the response of Rondinella grape during postharvest dehydration from vines trained ...
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The effects of antioxidants and gas sparging on New Zealand white wines

AIM: This study aims to investigate the effects of different conditions of grape processing or fermentation on the aroma profile of New Zealand white wines. METHODS: Experiments have been designed to study how glutathione and ascorbic acid impact on the aroma compounds of Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Gris wines. Attention ...
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Aromatic profile of chardonnay – clone 809: from berry to sparkling wine in an altitude vineyard

AIM: Wine consumption is linked to the aromatic profile, consumer acceptance, and reflects the viticultural and oenological practices applied, together with the study related to clones is a way to evaluate the adaptation, production, and search for differentiated aromatic characteristics. Thus, the aromatic profile of Chardonnay cultivar clone 809 was ...
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Influence of the carbonic maceration winemaking method on the colour features of Tempranillo red wines

During recent years, carbonic maceration (CM) wines are increasingly demanded by consumers. The Spanish Rioja Qualified Designation of Origin (D.O.Ca. Rioja) is a winemaking area in which this traditional vinification system is fairly widespread. Traditionally, it has been thought that CM wines are very different to those produced by destemming ...
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New acacia gums fractions: how their features affect the foamability of sparkling base wines?

When sparkling wine is served, the first attribute perceived is foam1. Bentonite is usually added to wine in order to cause particle flocculation, but this procedure also leads to a drastic loss of foamability2. Acacia gums improve the foamability of some sparkling base wines treated with bentonite3. Acacia gums are ...
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Physiology of chemosensory perception, sensory science, consumers perception

Understanding sweetness of dry wines: first evidence of astilbin isomers in red wines and quantitation in a one-century range of vintages

The gustatory balance of wines relies on sweetness, bitterness and sourness. In dry wines, sweetness does not result from the presence of residual sugar as in sweet wines, but is due to other non-volatile compounds. Such taste-active compounds are released during winemaking, by grapes, yeasts or oak wood and belong ...
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GC-O and olfactoscan approaches to reveal premature aging markers in Chardonnay wine

Molecular markers of wine oxydation, such as sotolon or Strecker’s aldehydes that induce respectively nut or curry and boiled vegetables or wilted rose odors, can be percieved as a default by consumers. These volatile compounds are especially formed during the premature aging of wine, but it is likely that several ...
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White wine light-strike fault: a comparison between flint and green bottles under the typical supermarket conditions

AIM: Consumer preference favors flint-glass wine bottles over the traditional dark-colored, but it is documented that light exposure can cause white wines to produce off-aromas and change in color, and consequently da[1]mage their quality. Aim of the study was to study the white wine shelf life under the typical supermarket ...
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Impact of the non-volatile matrix composition on red wine aroma release and perception of olfactory and oral cues

AIM: Aroma and mouthfeel cues are the main characteristics defining red wine quality. During wine tasting, perceptual and physical-chemical phenomena leading to mutual interactions between volatiles and non-volatiles sensory active compounds, can occur. Aroma perception depends on the release of volatiles from wine, that is affected by wine constituents present ...
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Prediction of sauvignon blanc quality gradings with static headspace−gas chromatography−ion mobility spectrometry (SHS−GC−IMS) and machine learning

AIM: The main goal of the current study is the development of a cost-effective and easy-to-use method suitable for use in the laboratory of commercial wineries to analyze wine aroma. Additionally, this study attempted to establish a prediction model for wine quality gradings based on their aroma, which could reveal ...
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