Proceedings of WAC 2022

Fifth edition of the International Conference Series on wine active compounds

INAUGURAL CONFERENCE

Winemaking techniques and wine tasting methods at the end of the Middle Ages

Presenting author: Thomas LABBE – ARTEHIS Université de Bourgogne Email: thomas.labbe@u-bourgogne.fr Les pratiques de vinification et de dégustation du vin sont souvent perçues, à travers un discours marketing très puissant, sous l’angle d’une tradition millénaire qui perdure depuis le Moyen Âge. En Bourgogne, il est courant de rattacher les racines ...
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SESSION I – VITICULTURAL PRACTICES AND WINE COMPOUNDS

Integrative grape to wine metabolite analyses to study the vineyard “memory” of wine

Wine production is a complex multi-step process and the end-product is not easily defined in terms of composition and quality due to the diversity of the raw materials (grapes) and the biological agents (yeast and bacteria) used/present during the fermentation. Furthermore, linking what happens in the vineyard to the wine ...
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Ultrastructural and chemical analysis of berry skin from two Champagne grapes varieties and in relation to Botrytis cinerea susceptibility

Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen that causes one of the most serious diseases of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera), grey mold or Botrytis bunch rot. In Champagne, the Botrytis cinerea disease leads to considerable economic losses for winemakers and wines exhibit organoleptic defaults. The grapevine susceptibility increases with berry ripening, ...
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Evolution of chemical pattern related to Valpolicella aroma ‘terroir’ during bottle aging

Valpolicella is a famous Italian wine-producing region. Wines produced in its different sub-regions are believed to be aromatically different, as confirmed by recent studies in our laboratory. Aging is a very common practice in Valpolicella and it is required by the appellation regulation for periods up to four years require ...
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Methyl jasmonate versus nano-methyl jasmonate. Effect on the tannin composition of monastrell grapes and wines

Tannins are very important for grape and wine quality, since they participate in several organoleptic wine characteristics such as astringency perception, bitterness, and the colour stability. The compositions in tannins in grapes and wines differs between seeds and skins. Tannin seeds contain a higher concentration of tannins than skin and ...
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Vineyard’s ozone application to induce secondary metabolites accumulation in grapes and wine

In viticulture sector to find new tools for pest management has become an urgent necessity. Hence, grapevines cultivation has high production rate demand and to meet the intensive market request, a massive use of pesticides is often required. In addition to the environmental problems associated with large use of chemicals, ...
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Spectral features of vine leaves are influenced by their mineral content

The reflectance spectra of vegetation carry potentially useful information that can be used to determine chemical composition and discriminate between vegetation classes. If compared with analytical methods such as conventional chemical analysis, reflectance measurement provides non-destructive, economic, near real-time data.  Presently, results from reflectance measurements performed by spectroradiometry on leaves and ...
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Mining terroir influence on bioactive polyphenols from grape stems: A correlation-network-driven approach to spatialize metabolomics data

In viticulture, the concept of terroir is often used to enlighten the environmental-based typicity of grapevines grown in a local area however its scientific basis remains under debate. Grape polyphenols as key player of the plant defense system enables adaptation to environmental changes and so far, form a unique metabolic ...
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Vineyard management strategies adopted to mitigate the impacts of climate change affect the evolution of phenolics and color during bottle aging of Aglianico wines

In recent years several strategies have been proposed to cope with the effect of climate change on grape berry quality but only a few studies have dealt with the influence of management practices implemented in the field (e.g. irrigation,summer pruning, etc.), on the evolution of wines over time. Three irrigation treatments ...
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Aroma chemical markers of Durello wines from different vintages and origins: a case study

Wines expressing sensory characters that are representative of their varietal and geographical origins are highly sought after in today’s market. It is therefore of considerable technological interest to investigate the aromatic aspects of specific wines and to identify the odorous substances involved. This study investigated aroma chemical and sensory diversity ...
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Wine by-products valorisation by green chemistry methods: Impact of the extraction process on the structure, functionalities and activity of the extracted molecules

Wine by-products valorisation by green chemistry methods: Impact of the extraction process on the structure, functionalities and activity of the extracted molecules Viniculture is a huge socio-economic activity throughout the world, 57% of worldwide grape production is for wine-making industry. Wine-making generates huge amounts of by-products (grape pomace (skins, pulp, ...
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Antioxidant activity of grape seed and skin extract during ripening

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important physiological role in the body’s defense and being involved in numerous signaling pathways 1, 2. When the balance between oxidant and antioxidant species is altered in favor of ROS, oxidative stress is generated. In this condition the cells are damaged as the ROS ...
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Water is the most abundant active compound in wine!

Proton relaxation in model and real wines was investigated by fast field cycling NMR relaxometry. Albeit protons of wine are largely belonging to water molecules, their magnetic relaxation rates actually depend on various physico-chemical parameters related to the state of the wine and to its composition. The dominant relaxation mechanism ...
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Organic volatile compounds as suitable markers of grapevine response to defense elicitors in the vineyard

In greenhouse, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by grapevine leaves has already been reported in response to the defence elicitor sulfated laminarin (PS3) [1]. In order to check that this response was not specific to PS3, experiments were conducted on Vitis cv Marselan plantlets with several other elicitors of ...
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Metabolomics screening of Vitis sp. interspecific hybrids to select natural ingredients with cosmetic purposes

Introducing natural ingredients using green chemistry practices is a major challenge in cosmetics industry to follow the market trend. Among the plants of cosmetic interest, vine products show a remarkable diversity of natural substances with high potential for the cosmetic and dermatological sectors. To date, research focuses on well-known compounds ...
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SESSION II – SENSORY PERCEPTIONS OF PROFESSIONALS AND CONSUMERS

Multisensory experiential wine marketing

Interest in the pairing, or matching, of wine with music goes way back, with commentators initially using musical metaphors merely to describe the wines that they were writing about. More recently, however, this has transformed into a growing range of multisensory tasting events in which wine and music are deliberately ...
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Entre ce que les consommateurs disent, ce qu’ils apprécient et ce qu’ils achètent… où se situent les vins de chasselas ?

Originaire du bassin lémanique, le chasselas est l’emblème de la viticulture suisse. Pour autant, les surfaces de chasselas n’ont cessé de diminuer, passant de 6’585 hectares en 1986 à près de 3’600 aujourd’hui, reflet d’une baisse de consommation. Une récente étude a cherché à comprendre les raisons de ce désintérêt. ...
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The importance of the physicochemical composition of wine on the score awarded in an official contest

The quality of wine is difficult to define. This is most certainly accredited to everyone´s different perception of quality. Some of the indicators of high-quality wines are color complexity and balance. Color is one of the most crucial attributes of quality, not only for the obvious implications for their perception ...
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Prise en compte et mutations de l’acidité volatile au XXe siècle : les évolutions règlementaires, scientifiques et qualitatives d’un composé du vin au regard de l’histoire

Les composés actifs du vin ont, jusqu’ici, peu fait l’objet d’études sur le temps long. Le développement de l’œnologie, de l’analyse des vins et, de manière concomitante, l’essor des règlementations vinicoles au XXe siècle révèlent pourtant au grand jour le poids de ces composés et leurs évolutions. Dans cette communication, ...
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How do we describe wine imagery? Expertise shapes language usage and multimodal imagery for wine

The acquisition of wine expertise is a multi-faceted and multisensory process with implications for sensory perception, attention, memory, and language production. With the prevalence of the predictive model of brain functioning, one area of burgeoning research interest involves wine mental imagery, since the brain relies on imagined experiences to build ...
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Sensory impact of acetaldehyde addition in Syrah red wines

Acetaldehyde is a volatile carbonyl compound synthetized by yeast during alcoholic fermentation, but it can also be formed by oxidation of ethanol during wine aging [1]. At low concentration, it enhances the fruity aroma, however, at higher levels, it can generate the appearance of notes of bruised and rotten apple ...
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“Vinhos de mesa” et oenophilie : quand les caractéristiques organoleptiques des cépages américains empêchent l’intégration des consommateurs à l’univers de l’appréciation esthétique

Au Brésil, 80 % du vignoble national et 90 % du vignoble de l’État du Rio Grande do Sul (principale région productrice de vins dans le pays) sont plantés avec des cépages issus de vitis labrusca ou de cépages hybrides (DEBASTIANI, 2015). Une partie de cette production est utilisée pour la préparation ...
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HRATA : A new sensory methodology using advantage of wine aromatic wheels

Wine is an intrinsically complex aromatic product. To formalize this aromatic diversity and the hierarchical structure of the aromas, it is common to present them in the form of a wheel of aromas. These are used for learning and communication purposes but never for the acquisition of sensory characteristics. The ...
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Consumers’ emotional responses elicited by wines according to organoleptic quality

Wine is often described with emotional terms, such as surprising, disappointing or pleasant. However, very little has been done to really characterize this link between emotions and wine. Can it really bring emotions to wine tasters? Many studies have looked at the extrinsic factors that can improve the emotional experience ...
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Wine shaking during transportation: influence on the analytical and sensory parameters of wine

According to OIV reports, annual world wine consumption fluctuated around 240-245 mln hL over the past decade. The general market globalization has led to the situation when almost half of the consumed wine is exported to other countries. Of this volume, more than 60 mln hL are bottled still and ...
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An infrared laser sensor to characterize the gaseous headspace of champagne glasses under static and swirling conditions

Right after the pouring of champagne in a glass, thousands of rising and bursting bubbles convey gas-phase CO2 and volatile organic compounds in the headspace above the champagne surface, thus progressively modifying the gaseous chemical space perceived by the consumer [1]. Gas-phase CO2 and ethanol vapors are the main species ...
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Acetaldehyde-induced condensation products in red wines affect the precipitation of salivary proteins. Will this impact astringency?

Acetaldehyde is a common component of wine. It is already formed during the fermentation being an intermediate in the production of ethanol. Moreover, it can derive from the oxidation of ethanol during the wine production and aging. In wine, concentrations of acetaldehyde range from 30 to 130 mg/L. Acetaldehyde in ...
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Impact of toasting on oak wood aroma: creation of an oak wood aroma wheel

The impact of toasting process to produce aroma from oak wood intrinsic composition is well documented. It is admitted that such complexity contribute to the wine quality after barrel ageing. Despite our knowledge on the molecular identification of aroma impact compounds of oak wood, little research have been carried out, ...
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Organoleptic and analytical impacts of the color of glass of the bottles on Chasselas wine

This study was performed on Chasselas wine to assess the impact of exposure to wine light according to several glass color of bottles. The aim was to highlight any differences whether from an organoleptic or analytical point of view depending on the color. For this, four different shades were compared, ...
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SESSION III – WINEMAKING PROCESSES

Recent post title

Non Saccharomyces wine yeasts: emerging trends and challenges in winemaking

In the past, the contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking has always been considered negative for their limited enological attitude if compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In recent decades there has been a reevaluation of the role of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts especially when used in combination and in support with S. cerevisiae ...
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The wine microbial ecosystem: Molecular interactions between yeast species and evidence for higher order interactions

Fermenting grape juice represents one of the oldest continuously maintained anthropogenic microbial environments and supports a well-mapped microbial ecosystem. Several yeast and bacterial species dominate this ecosystem, and some of these species are part of the globally most studied and best understood individual organisms. Detailed physiological, cellular and molecular data ...
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Brettanomyces bruxellensis, born to live

The wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis can be found at several steps in the winemaking process due to its resistance to multiple stress conditions. Among the resistance strategies, one could be the formation of biofilm, a lifestyle known to enhance persistence of microorganisms. In this study, we propose to characterize ...
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Aroma compounds involved in the fruity notes of red wines potentially adapted to climate change.

Currently, climate change represents one of the major issues for the wine sector. The increasing temperature already recorded and expected in the upcoming years reduce the vegetative cycle of the grape varieties planted in Bordeaux area, affecting the physicochemical parameters of grapes and consequently, the quality of wine. From a ...
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Dimethyl sulfide: a compound of interest from grape to wine glass

The overall quality of fine wines is linked to the development of “bouquet” during wine bottle ageing1. Several chemical reactions, occurring in atmosphere protected from oxygen, are favourable to the formation and preservation of sulphur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS accumulate in wines thanks to hydrolysis of its ...
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Accurate Quantification of Quality Compounds and Varietal Classification from Grape Extracts using the Absorbance-Transmittance Fluorescence Excitation Emission Matrix (A-TEEM) Method and Machine Learning

Rapid and accurate quantification of grape berry phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins, and identification of grape varieties are both important for effective quality control of harvesting and initial processing for wine making. Current reference technologies including High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) can be rate limiting and too complex and expensive for ...
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Effect of post-harvest ozone treatment on secondary metabolites biosynthesis and accumulation in grapes and wine

The actual demand by consumers for safer and healthier food and beverage is pushing the wine sector to find alternative methods to avoid the use of sulphur dioxide in winemaking. Ozone is already used in the wine industry to produce sulphur dioxide-free wines through the patented method Purovino®. This study ...
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Monitoring of Sangiovese red wine chemical and sensory parameters along one-year aging in different tank materials and glass bottle

The aim of this study was to test how different tank materials could affect the chemical composition and the sensory profile of a red wine during an entire year of aging. For this scope, a single varietal Sangiovese wine was aged, after completing its malolactic fermentation, by using tanks made ...
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Stabulation (lees stirring) in must as a method for aroma intensification: A comparison with skin contact and a classical version of Traminer and Sauvignon blanc in Austria

In the course of this study, stabilisation (lees stirring in unclarified must) with skin contact and classic white wine vinification were compared for the Sauvignon blanc and Traminer varieties in Austria. The test wines were analysed for the volatile substances esters, free monoterpenes and fruity thiols. Analytically, the stabilisation could ...
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Fermentation Products, Degradation Parameters, (Poly)Phenols And Potassium Content In Tokaji Aszú Winemaking

The historic Tokaj Wine Region in northeast Hungary, a UNESCO World Heritage region since 2002, encompasses 5,500 ha vineyards. Produced from “noble rot” grapes, Tokaji Aszú is known as one of the oldest botrytized wines all over the world. Special microclimatic conditions (due to Bodrog and Tisza rivers, Indian summer), ...
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Advances in the chemistry of rosé winemaking and ageing

The market share of Rosé wine in France has grown from 11 % to 32 % over the last 20 years. Current trends are towards rosé wines of a lighter shade of pink, and where possible, containing a greater concentration in varietal thiols. Grape varieties, the soil on which they ...
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Impact of aspects of the polysaccharide structure of mannoproteins on their interactions with Enological Tannins

Mannoproteins (MPs) with different structure of their polysaccharide part (branching, substitutions, …) were used to better understand the impact of characteristics of the usual structure of MPs when interacting with Grape Seed Tannins (ST).  From four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains we obtain four MP pools: an enological strain LMD47 (presenting high ...
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Recent post title

Influence of cork density upon cork stopper resiliency after opening a sparkling wine bottle

After Champagne popping, the first consumer’s observation is the shape of the cork stopper. Consumers expect a “mushroom shape”. Nevertheless, we sometimes observe a “barrel” shape due to inappropriate cork’s elastic properties. The aim of this study was to follow the loss of cork stopper resiliency during 26 months according ...
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Which heat test can realistically estimate white wine haze risk?

Different heat tests are used to predict the dose of bentonite necessary to prevent wine haze after bottling. The most used tests are 60-120 min. at 80°C. Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the relationship between these tests and the turbidities observed in the bottles after the storage/transport ...
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Impact of strain and inoculation time on yeasts interactions: mass spectrometry-based study.

Under oenological conditions, when yeasts grow simultaneously during alcoholic fermentation, they often do not coexist passively, and in most cases, physiological and metabolic interactions are established between them. They interact by producing unpredictable compounds and fermentation products that can affect the chemical composition of the wine and therefore alter its ...
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Development of bioprospecting tools for oenological applications

Wine is the result of a complex biochemical process. From a microbiological point of view, the grape berry is characterised by a heterogeneous microbiota composed of different microorganisms (yeasts, bacteria and filamentous fungi) which will play a predominant role in the quality of the final product. At this level, yeasts ...
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Oenotannins addition in wine: can be the modulation of redox potential predictable?

The purpose of this research was to study the interaction between oenotannins and wine matrix in order to design a targeted oenotannins addition for modulating the redox status of wine. It is in fact known that oenotannins can regulate the redox potential of musts and wines since they are electroactive ...
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Influence of the temperature of the prise de mousse on the effervescence and foam of Champagne and sparkling wines.

The persistence of effervescence and foam collar during a Champagne or sparkling wine tasting constitute one, among others, specific consumer preference for these products. Many different factors related to the product or to the tasting conditions might influence their behavior in the glass. However, the underlying factor behind the fizziness ...
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Identification of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, a gamma nonalactone precursor in must and wine from Bordeaux cultivars

Various molecular compounds are responsible for the complex mixture of fragrances that give wine its aroma. In particular, the ‘cooked fruit’ aroma found in red wines from hot and/or dry vintages or from the vinification of late harvested grapes has been intensively investigated in recent years. Lactones and especially γ-nonalactone ...
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Comparison between the volatile chemical profile of two different blends for the enhancement of  “Valpolicella Superiore”

Valpolicella is a famous wine producing region in the province of Verona owing its fame above all to the production of two Protected Designation of Origins (PDOs) withered wines: Amarone and Recioto. In recent years, however, the wineries have been interested in the enhancement and qualitative increase of another PDO, ...
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Metabolomic study of mixed Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast during fermentation

Alcoholic fermentation conducted by microorganism is a key step in the production of wine. In this process, interactions between different species of yeast are widely described but their mechanisms are still poorly understood. The interactions studied in wine are mainly between Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces species. Therefore, little is known about ...
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Impact of enological enzymes on aroma profile of Prosecco wines during second fermentation and sur lie aging

Proseccco is a famous italian Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) produced in two regions: Veneto e Friuli Venezia Giulia, however, the production is mainly concentrated in the province of Treviso. These territories are characterized by plains with some hilly areas and temperate climate. Its Production regulation provides a minimum utilization ...
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Impact of SO2 addition before alcoholic fermentation on the oxidative stability of Chardonnay white wines

Sulfites (SO2) addition during winemaking is a widespread practice worldwide. This addition is realized at different steps of the winemaking due to the antimicrobial and antioxidant capacity of SO2. In a context of understanding white wines oxidative stability, knowledge about the impact of SO2 on the wine molecular diversity, especially ...
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Impact of the maturity and the duration of maceration on phenolic composition and sensorial quality of Divico wines

Following its approval in 2013 by Agroscope, Divico became the first interspecific grape variety in Switzerland with high resistance to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and grey rot (Botrytis cinerea), and medium resistance to powdery mildew (Uncinula nectator). Extremely riche in color, Divico grapes showed great enological potential to different styles ...
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SESSION IV – COMPOUNDS OF BIOLOGICAL INTEREST, RELATED TO HEALTH

Health benefits of wine industry by-products

The total global production of wine in 2021 was estimated at around 250 million hectoliters. The 30% of the total quantity of vinified grapes corresponds to wine by-products that represent nearly 20 million tons, of which 50% corresponds to the European Union. Wine by-products have been used for different purposes, ...
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A nutraceutical based on mediterranean diet with omega-3 fatty acid and resveratrol from grapewine counteracts ocular degenerative diseases

More recently, studies have shown that polyphenols could also prevent or improve vision in patients with ocular diseases and especially Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which is an eye disease characterized by damage to the central part of the retina, the macula, and that affects millions of people worldwide. Despite therapeutic ...
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Red wines from southwest France, Lebanon and South Korea: study of phenolic composition and antioxidant and biological activities according to grape varieties and winemaking processes

The phenolic compounds present in the wine are responsible for reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases (cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer …) because of their antioxidant activities and the presence of nutraceutical molecules with targeted biological activities. Polyphenols not only contribute to the “French paradox” but also contribute to give ...
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Wine lees: characterization and valorization by kombucha fermentation

Winemaking generates various types of residues (vine shoots, stalks, pomace, wine lees and filtration cakes) which can have a notable environmental and economic impact. Wine by-products are rich in bioactive compounds and therefore their valorization can be beneficial on different levels. Lees are the material that settles after vinification, and ...
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Identification and biological properties of new resveratrol derivatives formed in red wine

Resveratrol is a well-known wine constituent with a wide range of activities. In wines, resveratrol can be oxidized to form various derivatives including oligomers [1]. In this study, resveratrol derivative transformation in hydroalcoholic solution was investigated by oxidative coupling using metals. De novo resveratrol derivatives were synthetized and analysed by ...
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Polyphenols in kombucha: Metabolomic analysis of biotransformations during fermentation

Kombucha is a non-alcoholic beverage made of sugared tea that is transformed by a symbiotic consortium of yeasts and bacteria. This beverage is increasingly produced at industrial scale, but its quality standards remain to be defined. Metabolomics analysis was carried out using FT-ICR-MS to understand the chemical transformations induced by ...
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Epigenetic Modulation Of Inflammation And Synaptic Plasticity By Polyphenolic Metabolites Promotes Resilience Against Stress In Mice

Introduction: Major depressive disorder is associated with abnormalities in the brain and the immune system. Chronic stress in animals showed that epigenetic and inflammatory mechanisms play important roles in mediating resilience and susceptibility to depression.Material & Methods: Here, through a high- throughput screening, we identify two phytochemicals, dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA) ...
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Simgi® platform as a tool for the study of wine active compounds in the  gastrointestinal tract

Simgi® platform pursues the need for dynamic in vitro simulation of the human gastrointestinal tract optimized and adapted to food safety and health fields. The platform has confirmed the model’s suitability since its first’s studies with the consistency between the simulated colonic metabolism of wine polyphenols and the metabolic evolution ...
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Oak Tannin and Unoaked and Oaked Wine Extracts Influence Gene Expression in HepaRG Human Liver Cells

Previous work from our laboratory has shown that both a purified toasted oak powder and extracts made from unoaked and oaked red wines influenced physiological parameters, metabolism and hepatic gene expression in high-fat fed C57/BL6J male mice (Luo et al., 2020).  Impacted pathways included glucose metabolism, liver fat accumulation, markers of ...
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Polyphenols in kombucha: impact of infusion time on extraction and investigation of their behavior during “fermentation”

Kombucha is a non-alcoholic beverage made of sugared tea that is transformed by a symbiotic consortium of yeasts and bacteria. Polyphenols are expected to be responsible of several health benefits attributed to kombucha consumption, among other metabolites. This study investigated the impact of tea infusion time and of kombucha “fermentation”, ...
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Le cuivre sur raisins et moûts: dosage et intérêts de la mesure

Avec l’accroissement des surfaces viticoles conduites en Bio, la question de l’impact de la présence de résidus de cuivre (seul anti fongique autorisé dans l’UE dans ce cadre Règlementaire) sur le déroulement des fermentations et sur les qualités œnologiques et organoleptiques des vins s’est révélée de plus en plus cruciale. ...
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The development of a simple electrochemical method based on molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective determination of caffeic acid in wine

Caffeic acid (CA) is an antioxidant of great importance in the food sector, such as wine, where it acts as a marker of wine ageing, as well as in the health sector due to its antioxidant properties and beneficial effects including the prevention of inflammation, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. ...
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Red wine extract and resveratrol from grapevines could counteract AMD by inhibiting angiogenesis promoted by VEGF pathway in human retinal cells

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) that is the main cause of visual impairment and blindness in Europe which is characterized by damages in the central part of the retina, the macula. This degenerative disease of the retina is mainly due to the molecular mechanism involving the production and secretion of vascular ...
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Mechanistic insights into the bioavailability of oleocanthal and oleacein from olive oil in presence of wine active peptides and amino acids

Oleocanthal (OC) and oleacein (OL) are highly bioactive secoiridoids found in olive oil at elevated concentrations, especially when it is produced from unripe olives (Olea europaea L.). Both compounds have been correlated with strong activities against serious diseases through recent clinical trials. The most important clinical trials have been performed ...
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