Noble rot sweet wines are reputed wines, traditionally elaborated according to a singular vinification process involving the harvesting of overripe grapes under the action of the ascomycete fungus Botrytis cinerea.
OENO IVAS 2019
One of the main sensory characteristics of red wine is astringency, which can be defined as drying, puckering and roughing of the oral cavity after the exposure to tannin-rich wines. Tannins are the main responsible for the intensity of the sensation as well for the qualitative aspects of astringency. However, the total intensity of the sensation is not sufficient to fully characterize red wine astringency. Thirty-three different subqualities (Gawel et al. 2001) had been generated to describe the complexity of this multi perceptual phenomenon, which includes both tastes, tactile, and flavor sensations. So, how to feel tannins during tasting? In this study, we used a sensory method that combine the training for astringency subqualities with touch-standards and the CATA questions, usually applied in consumer science, to evaluate the astringency subqualities of different typologies of Sangiovese: commercial and experimental wines. Sangiovese wine represents a good model for the study of astringency because it is generally characterized by a high content of low and high molecular weight proantocyanidins. Commercial wines differed for percentage of Sangiovese (80-100 %) grapes used in winemaking and for designation (Toscana TS, Chianti Classico CH, Chianti Riserva CR, Morellino di Scansano MS). The astringency profile of wines changed as the percentage of Sangiovese increased. Positive subqualities as velvet, soft, mouthcoat, and rich highly characterized the Sangiovese wine belonging to TS and CR designations. Moreover, the astringency subqualities related to blending or wood aging, represented the drivers of quality of commercial Sangiovese wines.
The aromatic quality of wines after a long aging period in bottle is one of key points for oenologists. The objective of this work is to determine the main representative aromatic compounds found in long aged wines from D.O.Ca. Rioja. This study was made by 32 wines from 1971 to 2010 vintages. Sotolon, acetaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaptalene (TDN), β-damascenone, Y-decalactone and Y-dodecalactone were determined as the most important oxidation markers by GC-MS analysis. Moreover, sensory analysis using triangular tests were performed from wines with and without the addition of the mentioned compounds. Four different concentrations of each odorant were added, as individual compounds and as mixtures. The additions were ranged from values close to the reference odour thresholds up to high level concentrations. The most identified aroma was sotolon, which is commonly associated to curry and coffee liqueur aromatic notes. Other oxidative compounds were easily detected by panellists, such as Y-decalactone (peach compote), Y-dodecalactone (ripe fruit). The mixtures of the odorants were most easily detected than the individual compounds. It should be noted that acetaldehyde and phenylacetaldehyde were rarely perceived and distinguished.
Development of a new method to understand headspace aroma distribution and explore the pre-sensory level in perceptive interactions involved in red wine fruity aroma expression
A part, at least, of red wines fruity expression may be explained by perceptive interactions involving particularly various substituted ethyl esters and acetates present at concentration far below their olfactory threshold, specifically thanks to synergistic effects. Wine sensory perception is directly linked to the stimulation of the taster at the level of olfactory epithelium by volatiles. These compounds are liberated from the matrix to the atmosphere, and will then be smelt. From a physico-chemical point of view, these volatiles ability to be released may be evaluated by their partition coefficients, which correspond to the volatile concentration ratio between the liquid and gas phase. Our goal is, through these coefficients determination, to assess if volatile matrix composition is able to impact the volatility of some compounds, and then explain sensory perception, i.eto evaluate what is called the pre-sensorial level impact.
The quality of a wine is largely related to the balance between its sourness, bitterness and sweetness. Recently, molecules coming from grapes have been showed to notably contribute to sweet taste of dry wines. To study the viticultural and oenological parameters likely to affect their concentration, their quantification appears of high interest and subsequently requires powerful analytical techniques. Therefore, a new method using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) was developed and validated to quantify epi-DPA-3′-O-β-glucopyranoside acid (epi-DPA-G) and astilbin, sweet molecules identified in wine. Three gradients were tested on five different C18 columns (Hypersil Gold, HSS T3, BEH, Syncronis and Kinetex).
It is often said that wine is a complex matrix and the chemical analysis of wine with the thousands of compounds detected and often measured is proof. New technologies can assist not only in separating and identifying wine compounds, but also in providing information about the sample as a whole. Information-rich techniques can offer a fingerprint of a sample (untargeted analysis), a comprehensive view of its chemical composition. Applying statistical analysis directly to the raw data can significantly reduce the number of compounds to be identified to the ones relevant to a particular scientific question. More data can equal more information, but also more noise for the subsequent statistical handling.
This study investigated if compositional differences between Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties could influence the production of yeast-derived compounds. This work was based on the analysis of 40 experimental red wines made in triplicate fermentations from grapes harvested from two consecutive vintages in New South Wales (Australia). Grapes were picked at three maturity stages using berry sugar accumulation as physiological indicator, from nine commercial vineyards located in three different climatic regions (temperate, temperate-warm and warm-hot). A range of 30 yeast-derived wine volatiles including esters and alcohols were quantified by HS/SPME-GC/MS. Ammonia, amino-acids and lipids were analysed in the corresponding grapes. The juice total soluble solids (°Brix) in addition to the wine alcohol and residual sugar levels were also measured. The influence of grape maturity on wine ester composition was also variety dependent, particularly for higher alcohol acetate and ethyl ester of branched acids. This study highlights that varietal differences observed in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines involve fermentation-derived compounds irrespective of the site (soil, climate, viticultural practices).
Sotolon (3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone) is a naturally occurring odorant compound with a strong caramel/spice-like scent, present in many foodstuffs. Its positive contribution for the aroma of different fortified wines such as Madeira, Port and Sherry is recognized. In contrast, it is also known to be responsible for the off-flavor character of prematurely aged dry white wines. The formation mechanisms of sotolon in wine are still not well elucidated, particularly in Madeira wines, which are submitted to thermal processing during its traditional ageing. The sotolon formation in these wines has been related to sugar degradation mechanisms, particularly from fructose .
France is the largest exporter of wine in the world. The export turnover is estimated at 8.7 billion euros in 2017 for 13 million hectoliters sold. This lucrative business pushes scammers to increase the value of some low-end wines by cheating on their appellations, quality or even their origins. These facts lead to losing 1.3 billion euros each year to the European Union’s wine and spirits companies.
During Champagne or sparkling wine tasting, gas-phase CO2 and volatile organic compounds invade the headspace above glasses , thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Gas-phase CO2 in excess can even cause a very unpleasant tingling sensation perturbing both ortho- and retronasal olfactory perception . Monitoring as accurately as possible the level of gas-phase CO2 above glasses is therefore a challenge of importance aimed at better understanding the close relationship between the release of CO2 and a collection of various tasting parameters.
CIEDE2000 colour difference value as a parameter for tracing the ageing process on wood aged spirits
It is quite common nowadays to carry out analyses which allow to control the ageing of spirits that are aged in wood casks. Many control parameters have been previously studied, such as the concentration of different phenolic compounds or the Total Polyphenol Index, in order to better understand the ageing process of wood aged spirits. On the other hand, it is frequent to analyse as a physical parameter the colour of those spirit samples, by stating them as an array of three coordinates from various colour spaces as CIE L*a*b* or CIE L*C*H*.
The assessment of wine authenticity is of great importance for consumers, producers and regulatory agencies to guarantee the geographical origin of wines and grape variety as well. Since mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with chemometrics represent a suitable tool to ascertain the wine composition, including features associated with the polyphenolic compounds, the aim of this study was to generate MIR spectra of red wines to be exploited for classification of red wines based on the relationship between grape variety and wine composition. Several multivariate data analyses were used, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Discriminant Analysis (DA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Soft Intelligent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA).
Development of FTIR partial least squares models for polyphenol quantification in red wine during fermentation
Polyphenolic compounds are considered to have a major impact on the quality of red wines. Sensory impact, such as astringency and bitterness, stems directly from tannin composition. Thenceforth, quick analytical measurement of phenolic compounds appears to be a real challenge for winemaking monitoring and process control. Many methods were developed to analyzed polyphenols in wine, but they are time-consuming and require chemistry skills and equipment, not suitable for a rapid routine analysis. A reliable and rapid method to obtain this kind of measurement is Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
Monitoring small-scale alcoholic fermentations using a portable FTIR-ATR spectrometer and multivariate analysis
Although some wine production processes still rely on post-production evaluation and off-site laboratory analysis, the new winemaking industry is aware of a need for a better knowledge of the process to improve the properties of the final product. Thus, more and more wineries are interested in incorporating quality-by-design (QbD) strategies instead of postproduction testing because of the possibility to early detect deviations in fermentation or any other wine process. This would allow to detect unwanted situations and eventually to ‘readjust’ the process, thus minimizing rejects.
Use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to rapidly verify the botanical authenticity of gum arabic
Gum arabic is composed of a polysaccharide rich in galactose and arabinose along with a small protein fraction [1, 2], which gives its stabilizing power with respect to the coloring substances or tartaric precipitation of bottled wine. It is a gummy exudation from Acacia trees; the products used in enology have two possible botanical origins, i.e. Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal, with different chemical-physical features and consequently different technological effects on wines. The aim of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of discrimination of commercial gums Arabic between their two different sources, on the basis of the absorption of the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra of their aqueous solutions, in order to propose an extremely rapid and cost-saving method for quality control laboratories.
Determination of titratable acidity, sugar and organic acid content in red and white wine grape cultivars during ripening by VIS–NIR hy¬perspectral imaging
Grape harvest time is one of the most fundamental aspects that affect grape quality and thus wine quality. Many factors influence the decision of harvest; among them technological and phenolic maturity of grape. Technological ripeness is mainly related to sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH. Conventional methods for chemical analysis of grapes are normally sample-destructive, time-consuming, include laborious sample preparation steps, and generate chemical waste, thereby limiting their utility in online/in-line quality monitoring. Moreover, destructive analyses can be performed only on a limited number of fruit pieces and, thus, their statistical relevance could be limited. This study evaluated the ability of a lab-scale hyperspectral imaging (HYP-IM) technique to predict titratable acidity, organic acid and sugar content of grapes. Samples of Cabernet franc and Chenin blanc grapes were consecutively collected six times at weekly intervals after veraison. The images were recorded thanks to the hyperspectral imaging camera Pica L (Resonon) in a spectral range from 400 to 1000 nm. Statistics were performed using Microsoft Xlstat software. Successively, the berries were analyzed for their sugar (glucose and fructose) and organic acid (malic and tartaric acid) content and titratable acidity according to usual methods.
Tannins are a heterogenous class of polymeric phenolics found in grapes, oak barrels and wine. In red wine tannins are primarily responsible for astringency, though they also have an important role in reacting with and stabilizing pigments. There are numerous sub-classes of tannins found in wine but they all share structural heterogeneity within each sub-class, with varied polymer composition, configuration and length.
Numerous methodologies exist for the quantification of tannins, however, protein precipitation using bovine serum albumin has proved itself useful due to its strong correlation to the sensory perception of astringency and the basic instruments required for the method. Though the method can yield valuable insights into tannin composition, it cannot be automated easily and necessitates well-trained personnel.
Identification of cis-2-methyl-4-propyl-1,3-oxathiane as a new volatile sulfur compound (VSC) in wine
Despite their trace concentrations, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are an important category of flavour-active compounds that significantly contribute to desirable or undesirable aromas of many foods and beverages. In wines, VSCs in the form of polyfunctional thiols, notably 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3-SH), 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3-SHA), and 4-sulfanyl-4-methyl-pentan-2-one (4-MSP), possess extremely low olfactory thresholds (≈ ng/L) and pleasant “tropical aroma” notes. They have received much attention with respect to their sensory contributions, quantitative occurrences, biogenesis, and thiol management through viticulture and winemaking. However, the fate of these potent volatiles are still not fully understood.