In a context of reducing herbicide use, the most part of French vineyards are developing permanent grass cover crops on inter-rows alleys, while under the row chemical weeding remains the general case. The setting up of a controlled grass cover crop under the vine row could be a complementary alternative to mechanical weeding – which one is very restrictive – interesting from a technical and economical point of view. The present study aimed at assessing agronomic impacts of grass cover crop under the row in different climatic conditions and production objectives.
Occurrence of freezing temperatures in early spring when grapevine shoots are developing is termed late frost in viticulture. Young green tissues are very sensible to temperatures below zero and damages often lead to important yield and quality losses such as the case in Europe in 2017. An indirect method to avoid late frost damage in vineyards consist in delaying the budburst. Previous research reported similar effects by applying vegetal oil on dormant buds. Here, we tested the application of rapeseed vegetal oil during late winter to delay the budburst on two V.vinifera cultivars of interest in Austria, Grüner Veltliner (GV) and Zweigelt (ZW).
Copper is listed among the active substances candidates for substitution (Regulation EU 2015/408). Yet still, because of the lack of valid alternatives, the European Commission recently confirmed its usage authorization by limiting the maximum amount to 28 Kg per hectare in 7 years, i.e. an average of 4 kg/year (Reg. EU 2018/1981).This restriction is due to copper accumulation in soils and surface waters both caused by a steady application, especially on perennial crops (Riepert et al., 2013). The aim of this work is to determine if treatments with reduced copper dosages are able to reach different grapevine’s organs, with particular focus on the core of bunches, and if these small amounts can ensure the respect of the legislative prescription, without compromising the phytosanitary conditions of the vineyards, thus grape yields.
In-season vineyard pest management relies on proper timing, selection, and application of products. Most of the research on pest management tends to focus on the influence of regional conditions on these aspects, with an emphasis on product timing and efficacy evaluation. One aspect that is not fully vetted in various vineyard regions is application (sprayer) technology. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of regional conditions on sprayer performance in commercial wine grape vineyards in eastern Washington.
Promoting sustainable agricultural practices is one of the challenges of the last decades. Organic and biodynamic viticulture can be an alternative to intensive viticulture, furthermore contributing to reduction of impact on environment and human health and guaranteeing soil preservation and quality products1. The aim of this experimentation was to evaluate the medium and long-term effects of different agronomic practices in viticulture on nutrient availability and heavy metal accumulation in soil.
Phenology, thermal requirements and maturation of the SR 0.501-17 wine grape hybrid cultivated in contrasting climate
The use of hybrids in viticulture is one of the alternatives for sustainable production in hot and rainy regions during grapevine maturation. This sustainable production concerns the reduction of pesticide use, adaptation to climate and control of vine decline. The SR 0.501-17 wine grape hybrid, developed in the grapevine program of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC), is characterized by producing white grapes with small spherical berries with seeds. The agronomic characterization of this hybrid, especially in different climatic conditions, as well as the evaluation of its performance in winemaking are necessary. The objective of this work was to characterize the duration and thermal requirements of the different phenological stages and the influence of rainfall on the physicochemical characteristics of the must in two contrasting climate regions of the State of São Paulo.
Effect of rootstock and preplant fumigation on plant parasitic nematode development in Washington wine grapes
In Washington State, the majority of winegrape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards are planted to their own roots. This practice is possible due to the lack of established phylloxera populations, and is preferred due to the ease of retraining after damaging winter cold events. However, own-rooted V. vinifera is generally susceptible to most plant parasitic nematodes that attack grape. In Washington State, management of nematodes is dominated by preplant soil fumigation. One practice that may mitigate economic loss due to nematodes is the adoption of nematode-“resistant” rootstocks.
Predatory Arthropods associated with potential locally-adapted native insectary plants for Australian vineyards
Three locally-adapted native plants were evaluated to determine their capacity to provide insectary benefits to predatory arthropods in association with vineyards, and thereby to enhance biological control of insect pests. Native plants are preferred as supplementary flora, as they are naturally adapted to Australia’s climatic conditions.
Essential oil vapor triggers resistance pathways in Vitis vinifera and blocks plasmopora viticola infection
The amount of synthetic pesticides applied in viticulture is relatively high compared to other agricultural crops, due to the high sensitivity of grapevine to diseases such as downy mildew (Plasmopora viticola). Alternatives to reduce fungicides are utterly needed to promote a sustainable vineyard-ecosystems and meet consumer acceptance. Essential oils (EOs) are amongst the most promising natural plant protection agents and have shown their antifungal properties previously. However, the efficiency of EOs depends highly on timing and application technique.
The vineyard world is faced to a lot of fungal diseases. Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTD) are some of the major. After exhibiting chronical foliar symptoms, grapevines can die by apoplexy within only few days. A range species of fungi was described to be associated with the apparition of early symptoms of GTD. It is well known that ozone dissolved into water is a powerful disinfectant with no remanence. The main goal of this study was to test the efficiency of this process on different fungal species associated with GTD in vitro and in planta conditions.
Herbicides are commonly sprayed in the vine row to prevent competition with vines for water and minerals and to keep weeds from growing into the bunch zone. Sprays are applied before budbreak and reapplied multiple times during the season to keep the undervine bare. There is growing concern about the negative effects of herbicides on humans and the environment, and weeds in New Zealand have developed resistance to herbicides. Therefore, it is imperative that we reduce our reliance on herbicides in viticulture and incorporate methods that do not engender resistance.
It is fundamental for wineries to know the potential yield of their vineyards as soon as possible for future planning of winery logistics. As such, non-invasive image-based methods are being investigated for early yield prediction. Many of these techniques have limitations that make it difficult to implement for practical use commercially. The aim of this study was to assess whether yield can be estimated using images taken in-field with a smartphone at different phenological stages. The accuracy of the method for predicting bunch weight at different phenological stages was assessed for seven different varieties.