oeno-macrowine

IVES 9 Tag: oeno-macrowine

ESTIMATING THE INITIAL OXYGEN RELEASE (IOR) OF CORK CLOSURES

Many factors influence aging of bottled wine, oxygen transfer through the closure is included. The maximum uptake of wine before oxidation begins varies from 60 mg.L-¹ to 180 mg.L-1 for white and red wines respectively [1].
The process of bottling may lead to considerable amounts of oxygen. The actual contribution of the transfer through the closure system becomes relevant at the bottle storage, but the amounts are small compared to prepacking operations [2] and to the total oxygen attained during filling.

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EFFECTS OF LEAF REMOVAL AT DIFFERENT BUNCHES PHENOLOGICAL STAGES ON FREE AND GLYCOCONJUGATE AROMAS OF SKINS AND PULPS OF TWO ITALIAN RED GRAPES

Canopy-management practices are applied in viticulture to improve berries composition and quality, having a great impact on primary and secondary grape metabolism. Among these techniques, cluster zone leaf removal (defoliation) is widely used to manage air circulation, temperature and light radiation of grape bunches and close environment. Since volatiles are quantitatively and qualitatively influenced by the degree of fruit ripeness, the level of solar exposure, and the thermal environment in which grapes ripen, leaf removal has been shown to affect volatile composition of grape berries [1].

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EVALUATING WINEMAKING APPLICATIONS OF ULTRAFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY

Ultrafiltration is a process that fractionates mixtures using semipermeable membranes, primarily on the basis of molecular weight. Depending on the nominal molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) specifications of the membrane, smaller molecules pass through the membrane into the ‘permeate’, while larger molecules are retained and concentrated in the ‘retentate’. This study investigated applications of ultrafiltration technology for enhanced wine quality and profitability. The key objective was to establish to what extent ultrafiltration could be used to manage phenolic compounds (associated with astringency or bitterness) and proteins (associated with haze formation) in white wine.

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EVIDENCE OF THE INTERACTION OF ULTRASOUND AND ASPERGILLOPEPSINS I ON UNSTABLE GRAPE PROTEINS

Most of the effects of ultrasound (US) result from the collapse of bubbles due to cavitation. The shockwave produced is associated with shear forces, along with high localised temperatures and pressures. However, the high-speed stream, radical species formation, and heat generated during sonication may also affect the stability of some enzymes and proteins, depending on their chemical structure. Recently, Ce-lotti et al. (2021) reported the effects of US on protein stability in wines. To investigate this further, the effect of temperature (40°C and 70°C; 60s), sonication (20 kHz and 100 % amplitude, for 20s and 60s, leading to the same temperatures as above, respectively), in combination with Aspergillopepsins I (AP-I) supplementation (100 μg/L), was studied on unstable protein concentration (TLPs and chitinases) using HPLC with an UV–Vis detector in a TLPs-supplemented model system and in an unstable white wine.

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EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL AND SENSORIAL PROFILE OF WINES ELABORATED WITH THEIR OWN TOASTED VINE-SHOOTS AND MICRO-OXYGENATION

The positive contribution of toasted vine-shoots (SEGs, Shoot from vines – Enological – Granule) used in winemaking to the chemical and sensory profile of wines has been widely proven. However, the combination of this new enological tool with other winemaking technologies, such as micro-oxygenation (MOX), has not been studied so far. It is known that micro-oxygenation is used in wineries to stabilizes color, improves structure or combining with oak alternatives products to achieve a more effective aroma integration of wines. For that, its implementation in combination with SEGs could result in differentiated wines.

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EXTRACTIBLE COMPOUNDS FROM MICROAGGLOMERATED CORK STOPPERS

After bottling, the wine continues to evolve during storage. The choice of the stopper is an important factor in this evolution. In addition to the oxygen permeability of the closure, the migration of stopper compounds into the wine can also have an impact on the wine organoleptic properties. Many studies have shown that transfers of volatile compounds from the stoppers into the wine can happen depending on the type of closure used (1). Moreover, when cork-made stoppers are used, the migration of phenolic compounds from the stopper into the wine can also occur (2, 3).

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FACTORS AFFECTING QUERCETIN SOLUBILITY IN SANGIOVESE RED WINE: FIRST RESULTS

Quercetin (Q) is present in grape in form of glycosides and as aglycone. These compounds are extracted from grape skins during winemaking. In wines, following the hydrolysis reactions, the amount of quercetin aglycon can exceed its solubility value. Unfortunately, a threshold solubility concentration for quercetin in wine is not easy to determine because it depends on wine matrix (Gambuti et al., 2020).

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FLAVANOL COMPOSITION OF VARIETAL AND BLEND WINES MADE BEFORE AND AFTER FERMENTATION FROM SYRAH, MARSELAN AND TANNAT

Background: The Flavan-3-ol extraction from grape skin and seed during red-winemaking and their retention into wines depend on many factors, some of which are modified in the winemaking of blend wines. Recent research shows that Marselan, have grapes with high proportion of skins with high concentrations of flavanols, but produces red-wines with low proportion of skin derived flavanols, differently to the observed in Syrah or Tannat. But the factors explaining these differences are not yet understood.

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FUNCTIONALIZED MESOPOROUS SILICA IS A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO BENTONITE FOR WINE PROTEIN STABILIZATION

The presence of grape-derived heat unstable proteins can lead to haze formation in white wines [1], an instability prevented by removing these proteins by adding bentonite, a hydrated aluminum silicate that interacts electrostatically with wine proteins leading to their flocculation. Despite effective, using bentonite has several drawbacks as the costs associated with its use, the potential negative effects on wine quality, and its environmental impact, so that alternative solutions are needed.

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HAZE RISK ASSESSMENT OF MUSCAT MUSTS AND WINES : WHICH LABORATORY TEST ALLOWS A RELIABLE ESTIMATION OF THE HEATWAVE REALITY?

Wines made from Muscat d’Alexandria grapes exhibit a high haze risk. For this reason, they are systematically treated with bentonite, on the must and sometimes also on wine. In most oenological labora-tories and in companies (trade, cooperatives, independent winegrowers), the test that is by far the most widely used, on a worldwide scale, remains the heat test at 80°C for 30 minutes to 2 hours (and some-times up to 6 hours). The tannin test (sometimes coupled with a heat treatment) and the Bentotest are still used. In this study, we show that all these tests give much higher estimates of the haze risk than the risk assessed by a 24-48h treatment at 42°C, which represents a heat wave.

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IMPACT OF ACIDIFICATION AT BOTTLING BY FUMARIC ACID ON RED WINE AFTER 2 YEARS

Global warming is responsible for a lack of organic acid in grape berries, leading to wines with higher pH and lower titrable acidity. The chemical, microbiological and organoleptic equilibriums are impacted by this change of organic acid concentration. It is common practice to acidify the wine in order to prevent these imbalances that can lead to wine defects and early spoilage. Tartaric acid (TA) is most commonly used by winemaker for wine acidification purposes. Fumaric acid (FA), which is authorized by the OIV in its member states for the inhibition of malolactic fermentation, could also be used as a potential acidification candidate since it has a better acidifying power than tartaric acid.

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IN DEPTH CHARACTERIZATION OF OENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO LACHANCEA THERMOTOLERANS STARTER STRAINS

Non-Saccharomyces starter cultures became increasingly popular over the years because of their potential to produce more distinctive and unique wines. The major benefit of the use of Lachancea thermotolerans as a fermentation starter is its ability to produce relevant amounts of lactic acid and reduce alcoholic strength, making it valuable for mitigating negative impacts of climate change on grapes and wine quality. Besides, like any other non-Saccharomyces yeast, L. thermotolerans can significantly affect a whole range of other physico-chemical wine parameters.

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INFLUENCE OF THE NITROGEN / LIPIDS RATIO OF MUSTS ON THE REVELATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN SAUVIGNON BLANC WINE

Production of volatile compounds by yeast is known to be modulated by must nitrogen. Nevertheless, various parameter of must quality have an impact on yeast fermentation. In this study we propose to evaluate the impact of nitrogen / lipids balance on a Sauvignon Blanc grape juice (Val de Loire).
Must was prepared from the same grapes at pilot scale. Three modalities were carried out: direct pressing, direct pressing with a pre-fermentation cold stabulation and pellicular maceration before pressing.

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INFLUENCE OF THE THICKNESS OF OAK ALTERNATIVES ON THE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY OF RED WINES

Aging red wines in oak barrels is an expensive and laborious process that can only be applied to wines with a certain added value. For this reason, the use of oak alternatives coupled with micro-oxygenation has progressively increased over recent years, because it can reproduce the processes taking place in the barrels more economically and quickly [1]. Several studies have explored how oak alternatives [2-5] can contribute to wine composition and quality but little is known about the influence of their thickness.

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INFLUENCE OF WINEMAKING VARIABLES AND VINEYARD LOCATIONS ON CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROFILES OF SOUTH TYROLEAN PINOT BLANC

Pinot Blanc, an important grape variety grown in some mountain areas of Northern Italy such as South Tyrol over the last decades, with its cultivation covering 10.3% of the total vineyards, has compatible climatic conditions (e.g. heat requirements) which are normally found in the geographical areas of the mountain viticulture [1,2,3,4]. Climatic changes are hastening the growth of this variety at higher elevations, particularly for the production of high quality wine.

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MODULATION OF YEAST-DERIVED AROMA COMPOUNDS IN CHARDONNAY WINES USING ENCAPSULATED DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE TO CONTROL NUTRIENT RELEASE

Yeast-derived aroma compounds are the result of different and complex biochemical pathways that mainly occur during alcoholic fermentation. Many of them are related -but not limited- to the availability of nutrients in the fermentation medium and linked to nitrogen metabolism and biomass produced. Besides, the metabolic phase of yeast also regulates the expression of many enzymes involved in the formation of aroma active compounds. The work investigates the overall effect of continuous supplementation of nutrients during alcoholic fermentation of a grape must on the volatile composition of wines.

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EFFECT OF DIFFERENT VITICULTURAL AND ENOLOGICAL PRACTICES ON THE PHENOLIC COMPOSITION OF RED WINES

Global climate change is exerting a notable influence on viticulture sector and grape composition. The increase in temperature and the changes in rainfall pattern are causing a gap between phenolic and technological grape maturities [1]. As a result, the composition of grapes at harvest time and, consequently, that of wines are being affected, especially with regards to phenolic composition. Hence, wine quality is decreasing due to changes in the organoleptic properties, such as color and astringency, making necessary to implement new adaptive technologies in wineries to modulate these properties in order to improve wine quality.

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EFFECT OF FUMARIC ACID ON SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION IN GRAPE MUST

Malolactic fermentation (MLF)¹, the decarboxylation of L-malic acid into L-lactic acid, is performed by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). MLF has a deacidifying effect that may compromise freshness or microbiological stability in wines² and can be inhibited by fumaric acid [E297] (FA). In wine, can be added at a maximum allowable dose of 0.6 g/L³. Its inhibition with FA is being studied as an alternative strategy to minimize added doses of SO₂⁴. In addition, wine yeasts are capable of metabolizing and storing small amounts of FA and during alcoholic fermentation (AF).

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