IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2019 9 Category: Poster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Poster – Vine physiology and grape ripening

GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Herbicide-free systems based on under-the-row grass cover in French vineyards

In a context of reducing herbicide use, the most part of French vineyards are developing permanent grass cover crops on inter-rows alleys, while under the row chemical weeding remains the general case. The setting up of a controlled grass cover crop under the vine row could be a complementary alternative to mechanical weeding – which one is very restrictive – interesting from a technical and economical point of view. The present study aimed at assessing agronomic impacts of grass cover crop under the row in different climatic conditions and production objectives.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Budburst delay and berry ripening after vegetal oil application in Austria

Occurrence of freezing temperatures in early spring when grapevine shoots are developing is termed late frost in viticulture. Young green tissues are very sensible to temperatures below zero and damages often lead to important yield and quality losses such as the case in Europe in 2017. An indirect method to avoid late frost damage in vineyards consist in delaying the budburst. Previous research reported similar effects by applying vegetal oil on dormant buds. Here, we tested the application of rapeseed vegetal oil during late winter to delay the budburst on two V.vinifera cultivars of interest in Austria, Grüner Veltliner (GV) and Zweigelt (ZW).

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Residual copper quantification on grapevine’s organs

Copper is listed among the active substances candidates for substitution (Regulation EU 2015/408). Yet still, because of the lack of valid alternatives, the European Commission recently confirmed its usage authorization by limiting the maximum amount to 28 Kg per hectare in 7 years, i.e. an average of 4 kg/year (Reg. EU 2018/1981).This restriction is due to copper accumulation in soils and surface waters both caused by a steady application, especially on perennial crops (Riepert et al., 2013). The aim of this work is to determine if treatments with reduced copper dosages are able to reach different grapevine’s organs, with particular focus on the core of bunches, and if these small amounts can ensure the respect of the legislative prescription, without compromising the phytosanitary conditions of the vineyards, thus grape yields.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Decline of new vineyards in Southern Spain

In-season vineyard pest management relies on proper timing, selection, and application of products. Most of the research on pest management tends to focus on the influence of regional conditions on these aspects, with an emphasis on product timing and efficacy evaluation. One aspect that is not fully vetted in various vineyard regions is application (sprayer) technology. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of regional conditions on sprayer performance in commercial wine grape vineyards in eastern Washington.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Nutrients and heavy metals in a vineyard soil under organic, biodynamic and conventional management

Promoting sustainable agricultural practices is one of the challenges of the last decades. Organic and biodynamic viticulture can be an alternative to intensive viticulture, furthermore contributing to reduction of impact on environment and human health and guaranteeing soil preservation and quality products1. The aim of this experimentation was to evaluate the medium and long-term effects of different agronomic practices in viticulture on nutrient availability and heavy metal accumulation in soil.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Phenology, thermal requirements and maturation of the SR 0.501-17 wine grape hybrid cultivated in contrasting climate

The use of hybrids in viticulture is one of the alternatives for sustainable production in hot and rainy regions during grapevine maturation. This sustainable production concerns the reduction of pesticide use, adaptation to climate and control of vine decline. The SR 0.501-17 wine grape hybrid, developed in the grapevine program of the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC), is characterized by producing white grapes with small spherical berries with seeds. The agronomic characterization of this hybrid, especially in different climatic conditions, as well as the evaluation of its performance in winemaking are necessary. The objective of this work was to characterize the duration and thermal requirements of the different phenological stages and the influence of rainfall on the physicochemical characteristics of the must in two contrasting climate regions of the State of São Paulo.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Effect of rootstock and preplant fumigation on plant parasitic nematode development in Washington wine grapes

In Washington State, the majority of winegrape (Vitis vinifera) vineyards are planted to their own roots. This practice is possible due to the lack of established phylloxera populations, and is preferred due to the ease of retraining after damaging winter cold events. However, own-rooted V. vinifera is generally susceptible to most plant parasitic nematodes that attack grape. In Washington State, management of nematodes is dominated by preplant soil fumigation. One practice that may mitigate economic loss due to nematodes is the adoption of nematode-“resistant” rootstocks.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Predatory Arthropods associated with potential locally-adapted native insectary plants for Australian vineyards

Three locally-adapted native plants were evaluated to determine their capacity to provide insectary benefits to predatory arthropods in association with vineyards, and thereby to enhance biological control of insect pests. Native plants are preferred as supplementary flora, as they are naturally adapted to Australia’s climatic conditions.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Essential oil vapor triggers resistance pathways in Vitis vinifera and blocks plasmopora viticola infection

The amount of synthetic pesticides applied in viticulture is relatively high compared to other agricultural crops, due to the high sensitivity of grapevine to diseases such as downy mildew (Plasmopora viticola). Alternatives to reduce fungicides are utterly needed to promote a sustainable vineyard-ecosystems and meet consumer acceptance. Essential oils (EOs) are amongst the most promising natural plant protection agents and have shown their antifungal properties previously. However, the efficiency of EOs depends highly on timing and application technique.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Ozone treatment: a solution to improve sanitary and physiological quality of vine plant

The vineyard world is faced to a lot of fungal diseases. Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTD) are some of the major. After exhibiting chronical foliar symptoms, grapevines can die by apoplexy within only few days. A range species of fungi was described to be associated with the apparition of early symptoms of GTD. It is well known that ozone dissolved into water is a powerful disinfectant with no remanence. The main goal of this study was to test the efficiency of this process on different fungal species associated with GTD in vitro and in planta conditions.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

The effects of reducing herbicides in New Zealand vineyards

Herbicides are commonly sprayed in the vine row to prevent competition with vines for water and minerals and to keep weeds from growing into the bunch zone. Sprays are applied before budbreak and reapplied multiple times during the season to keep the undervine bare. There is growing concern about the negative effects of herbicides on humans and the environment, and weeds in New Zealand have developed resistance to herbicides. Therefore, it is imperative that we reduce our reliance on herbicides in viticulture and incorporate methods that do not engender resistance.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Assessing bunch architecture for grapevine yield forecasting by image analysis

It is fundamental for wineries to know the potential yield of their vineyards as soon as possible for future planning of winery logistics. As such, non-invasive image-based methods are being investigated for early yield prediction. Many of these techniques have limitations that make it difficult to implement for practical use commercially. The aim of this study was to assess whether yield can be estimated using images taken in-field with a smartphone at different phenological stages. The accuracy of the method for predicting bunch weight at different phenological stages was assessed for seven different varieties.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Fertility assessment in Vitis vinifera L., cv. Alvarinho

The Portuguese wine production is characterized by wide yield fluctuations, causing considerable implications in the economic performance of this sector. The possibility of predicting the yield in advance is crucial as it enables preliminary planning and management of the available resources. The present work aims to study and evaluate two different techniques for the assessment of vine fertility. vineyards.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Petiole phosphorus concentration is controlled by the rootstock genetic background in grapevine: is this a key for understanding rootstock conferred vigour?

Grapevine, Vitis vinifera, requires grafting on Phylloxera tolerant rootstocks of American origin in most viticultural areas of the world. The most commonly used species in rootstock creation are V. berlandieri, V. riparia and V. rupestris. Rootstocks not only provide tolerance to Phylloxera but assure the supply of water and mineral nutrients to the scion. The objective of this work was to determine to what extent rootstocks of different parentages alter the mineral composition of petioles of grapevine.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2019IVES Conference SeriesPoster - Vine physiology and grape ripening

Do high temperature extremes impact berry tannin composition?

Flavonoids, including flavonols, anthocyanins, and tannins, are
important contributors to grape and wine quality, and their biosynthesis is strongly influenced by bunch microclimate. While the synergistic effect of light and temperature has been intensively examined on flavonoids in relation to bunch exposure, studies targeting the sole effect of high temperature have mostly
focused on anthocyanins during the ripening period. With tannin biosynthesis starting around flowering, heatwaves occurring earlier in the grape growing season could be critical. Only a few papers report the impact of temperature on tannin synthesis and accumulation; to date, none have examined the effect of high temperature extremes which, in the context of climate change, relates to increases in heatwave intensity.

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