Atypical aging (ATA) is a white wine fault characterized by the appearance of notes of wet rag, acacia blossoms and naphthalene, along with the vanishing of varietal aromas. 2-aminoacetophenone (AAP) – a degradation compound of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) – is regarded as the main sensorial and chemical marker responsible for this defect. About the origin of ATA, a stress reaction occurring in the vineyard has been looked as the leading cause of this defect. Agronomic, climatic and pedological factors are the main triggers and among them, drought stress seems to play a crucial role.
Tackling the 3D root system architecture of grapevines: a new phenotyping pipeline based on photogrammetry
Plant roots fulfil important functions as they are responsible for the acquisition of water and nutrients, for anchorage and stability, for interaction with symbionts and, in some cases, for the storage of carbohydrates. These functions are associated with the Root System Architecture (RSA, i.e. the form and the spatial arrangement of the roots in the soil). The RSA results from several biological processes (elongation, ramification, mortality…) genetically determined but with high structural plasticity.
Grapevine adaptation to drought and resistance to Neofusicoccum parvum, causal agent of Botryosphaeria dieback
The sustainability of viticulture in response to climate change has been addressed mainly considering agronomic impacts, such as water management and diseases, either separately or together.
In grapevines, there is strong evidence that different genotypes respond differently to biotic and abiotic stresses. A screening was conducted on various local cultivars in response to drought and Neofusicoum parvum infection aiming to evaluate their susceptibility to abiotic stress and resistance to fungal diseases.
In order to study the impact of climate change on Bordeaux grape varieties and to assess the behavior of candidate grape varieties potentially better adapted to the new climatic conditions, an experimental vineyard composed of 52 grape varieties was planted in 2009 at the INRAE Bordeaux Aquitaine center. Among the many parameters studied since 2012, berry weight for each variety was measured weekly from mid-veraison to maturity, with four independent replicates. The kinetics obtained allowed to study berry growth, a key parameter in grape composition and yield.
Impact of temperature and solar radiation on grape composition variability in the Saint-Emilion winegrowing area
Grape composition is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Their expected modifications in near future, notably because of increased temperatures, could significantly modify the biochemical composition of berries at harvest, and thus wine typicity and quality. Elevated temperatures favor sugar accumulation in grapes, enhance malic acid degradation and modify the amino acid content. They also reduce significantly anthocyanin accumulation in Merlot, leading to the imbalance between anthocyanins and sugars, while no significant effects on final anthocyanin levels were reported in Tempranillo and finally affect aromas or aroma precursors.
The first vineyards in Northern Europe were in Denmark in the 15th century, in the southern parts of Sweden and Finland in the 18th century at 55–60 degrees latitude. The grapes grown there have not been made into wine, but the grapes have been eaten at festive tables. The resurgence of viticulture has started with global warming, and currently the total area of viticulture in the Nordic countries, including Norway, is estimated to be 400–500 hectares, most of which is in Denmark. Southern Finland, like all southern parts of Northern Europe, belongs to the cool-cold winegrowing area.
Application of UV-B radiation in pre- and postharvest as an innovative and sustainable cultural practice to improve grape phenolic composition
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a minor part of the solar spectrum, but it represents an important ecological factor that influences many biological processes related to plant growth and development. In recent years, the application of UVR in agriculture and food production is emerging as a clean and environmentally friendly technology.
In grapevine, many studies have been conducted on the effects of ambient levels of UVR, but there are few considering the effects of UV-B application on grape phenolic composition under commercial growing or postharvest conditions.
Green pruning of shoots to force new sprouting of buds, in fruit set and in pea size: vegetative, productive and maturation effects, in cv. Verdejo
The context of climate crisis leads to the acceleration of technological ripening of grapes, with unsuitable loss of acidity, so various vineyard management alternatives are being considered to delay the grape ripening. The delay of the vegetative cycle towards a period of milder temperatures affects ripening, but vine behavior can vary according to the area, conduction, watering, variety, etc. A work is proposed to know the response to the green pruning of shoots, executed in fruit set and in pea size, in cv. Verdejo.
The use of δ13C as an indicator of water use efficiency for the selection of drought tolerant grapevine varieties
In the context of climate change with increasing evaporative demand, understanding the water use behavior of different grapevine cultivars is of critical importance. Carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C) measurements in wine provide a precise and integrated assessment of the water status of the vines during the sugar accumulation period in grape berries. When collected over multiple vintages on different cultivars, δ13C measurements can also provide insights into the effects of genotype on water use efficiency.
In grapevine, phenology from bud break to berry maturation, depends on temperature and water availability. Increases in average temperatures accelerates initiation of bud break, exposing newly formed shoots to detrimental environmental stresses. It is therefore essential to identify genotypes that could delay phenology in order to adapt to the environment. The use of different rootstocks has been applied to change scion’s characteristics, to adapt and resist to abiotic and biotic stresses.
Biotic and abiotic factors affecting physiological aspects underlying vegetative vigour in two commercial grapevine varieties
Grapevine vigour, defined as the propensity to assimilate, store and/or use non-structural sugars for allowing fast growth of shoots and producing large canopies, is crucial to optimize vineyard management. Recently, a model has been proposed for predicting the vigor of young grapevines through the measurement of the vegetative growth and physiological parameters, such as water status and gas exchange. Our objectives were (1) to explore the influence of the association of two grapevine varieties (Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon, grafted onto R110 rootstocks) with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the vegetative vigour of young plants; and (2) to assess the effect of environmental factors linked to climate change on the vegetative vigour of Cabernet Sauvignon.
Ecophysiological characterisation of terroir effects on Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay and pinot noir in south african cool climate regions
Terroir encompasses environmental (climate, geology, soil and topography), genetic (cultivar and clone) and human factors (oenological and viticultural practices). Climate change brings about shifts in the suitability of a region for the growth of specific grapevine cultivars. This study focused on climatic and fruit parameters (berry size, weight, pH, total acidity (TA) and phenolics) to characterise the terroir effect in Vitis vinifera L. cultivars Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vineyards in the Cape South Coast region (Walker Bay and Elgin).
Drought tolerance assessment and differentiation of grapevine cultivars using physiological metrics: insights from field studies
This study aimed to validate a protocol and compare metrics for evaluating drought tolerance in two Vitis vinifera grapevine cultivars under field conditions. Various metrics were calculated to represent the physiological responses of plants to progressive water deficit. Data were collected from Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay plants subjected to three irrigation levels during the 2022-2023 season, along with data from three previous seasons. Hydro-escape areas were used to assess the plant's ability to reduce water potential with decreasing soil water availability.
Eger wine region is located on the northern border of grapevine cultivation zone. In the cool climate, terroir selection is one of the foundations of quality wine making. However, climate change will have a significant impact on these high value-added vineyards. This study presents a case study from 2021 and 2022 with the investigation of three grape varieties (Kadarka, Syrah, Furmint). The experiment was conducted in a steep-sloped vineyard (Nagy-Eged hill) with a southern exposure.
One of the main aspects of Climate Change is the increase of temperatures during summer and grape maturity period. Physiological processes are influenced by these high temperatures and result in grapes with higher sugar concentration, less acidity and less anthocyanin content among other quality changes. One strategy to deal with the climate change effects is the implementation of late winter pruning to alter the effect of high temperatures during key periods by delays in maturity time.