Over the past few decades, viticultural research has made numerous contributions which have made it possible to better understand the behavior of the vine as well as its response to the conditions imposed on it by the environment and agronomic practices. However, these results have only rarely been used in the practical management of vineyards because the research has been carried out using partial experimental models where reality is only represented by a few factors which are sometimes even made more complex by the introduction of elements foreign to the existing situation and difficult to apply to production (varieties, methods of cultivation, management techniques, etc.). To these reasons, one could add a low popularization of the results obtained, as well as the difficulty of implementing the scientific contributions, which does not allow the different production systems to fully express their potential. This limit of viticultural research can only be exceeded by the design of integrated projects designed directly on and for the territory. Indeed, only the integrated evaluation of a viticultural agro-system, which can be achieved through zoning, makes it possible to measure, or even attribute to each element of the system, the weight it exerts on the quality of the wine.
Proceedings of Terroir 1996
Interaction among grapevine cultivars (Sangiovese, Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot) and site of cultivation in Bolgheri (Tuscany)
Different “landscape unit” have been identified in Bolgheri area (a viticultural appellation in the Tirrenian coast of Tuscany) by the aid of pedological, landscape and agronomic observations in the 1992-1993 period. In all cultivar (Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) x landscape unit combinations, experimental plots were chosen in homogeneous vineyards, single cordon trained (about 3300-4500 vines/hectare). Grape maturation was studied by weekly samples of berries from veraison to vintage in the 1992-1995 period. At harvest yield and must composition traits were measured and, from the most représentative plots, sixty kilograms of grapes were harvested each year and vinified according to a standardised scheme. Wines were evaluated by standard chemical and sensory analyses.
Un Système d’Informations à Références Spatiales sur le Vignoble. Un outil performant d’aide aux recherches sur la caractérisation des terroirs viticoles
The "Terroirs d'Anjou" project led by the Agronomy sector of the Vine and Wine Research Unit of the INRA center in Angers aims to characterize the viticultural terroirs in a study area which includes 29 municipalities in the Maine et Loire and cuts across the Anjou, Coteaux du layon and Coteaux de l'Aubance appellation areas.
On peut être surpris de l’existence d’un vignoble de vins liquoreux, le vignoble des Coteaux du Layon, dans une zone septentrionale à la limite Nord de la culture de qualité de la vigne et ce d’autant plus que le cépage de ce vignoble, le Chenin ou Pineau de la Loire, est un cépage semi tardif. La première explication est à rechercher au niveau des facteurs naturels (données climatiques et géopédologiques) permettant la réalisation de ce type de produit. Il est nécessaire de souligner ici l’importance de chaque paramètre du terroir pris dans im sens large (géopédologique et climatique) et que toute variation de l’un d’entre eux, même non perceptible en première analyse à l’homme, peut avoir des incidences déterminantes sur la qualité des vins.
A partir des recherches conduites sur la caractérisation des terroirs viticoles par des chercheurs de l’Unité de Recherches Vigne et Vin (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) du Centre INRA d’Angers, Terre des Sciences, le Centre de Culture Scientifique et Technique d’Angers (CCSTA) a mis au point un parcours de découverte d’une journée dans le vignoble angevin avec une approche pluridisciplinaire.
Présentation d’une méthodologie de caractérisation des terroirs et valorisation par l’étude de l’effet terroir sur la typicité et l’originalité du produit vin dans la région des Côtes du Rhône
In the global economic context, an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée must now more than ever control the typicity and originality of the wines it produces. It is in this spirit that the Côtes du Rhône have decided to acquire the means necessary for this control.
Research into the effects of the Terroir is of major interest for the wine sector. The study of Terroir-Vine-Grape relations, even if it is complex, is fundamental for all viticulture: indeed, the quality of the grape must be the result of the most reasoned agro-viticultural management of the vine possible, which must first, to respect a production balance. The goal sought by the winegrower is to obtain a wine, the optimized result of the interactions Terroir-Grape variety. This link to the terroir is therefore essential to establish by taking into account on the one hand the behavior of the vine (which is the cause), and on the other hand, its effects on the grapes and finally on the wine.
Vine environment interaction as a method for land viticultural evaluation. An experience in Friuli Venezia Giulia (N-E of Italy)
For a long time environment was known as one of the most important factors to characterize the quality of wines but at the same time it appears very difficult to distinguish inside the “terroir” the role of the single factor. These remarks partially explain why methods for viticultural evaluation are often quite different (Amerine et al., 1944; Antoniazzi et al., 1986; Asselin et al., 1987; Astruc et al., 1980; Bonfils, 1977; Boselli, 1991; Colugnati, 1990; Costantinescu, 1967; Costantini et al., 1987; Dutt et al., 1981; Falcetti et al., 1992; Fregoni et al., 1992; Hidalgo, 1980; Intrieri et al., 1988; Laville, 1990; Morlat et al., 1991; Scienza et al., 1990; Shubert et al., 1987; Turri et al., 1991).
Effets des pratiques agro-viticoles sur l’activité biologique et la matière organique des sols : exemples en Champagne et en Bourgogne
The notion of terroir covers multiple components, from geology, pedology, geomorphology and climatology (Doledec, 1995), to aspects that are less well identified but which also intervene in the “typicality” of wines. This justifies the “zoning” approach (Moncomble and Panigaï, 1990) to define homogeneous areas, under the same agro-viticultural management and also identified at the product level (Morlat and Asselin, 1992).
Evolution of several biochemical compounds during the development of Merlot wine in the vinegrowing “Terroir” of Valea Călugăreasa
The qualitative and quantitative distribution of the phenolic compounds in red wines depends on cultivars features, on grapes maturation state, on grapes processing technology including must obtention, as well as on maceration-fermentation method (Margheri, 1981). The last two factors are responsible for the different phenolic composition of the wines produced from the same cultivar.
Syrah is a grape with weak aromatic expression. This atypical grape variety as a fruit allows the production of wines of great reputation for which the aromatic particularity plays an important role. The varietal aroma consists of volatile substances directly perceptible by the olfactory mucosa and of aroma precursors, of which the glycosides constitute an important class.
The northern vineyards produce wines with a high aromatic richness. The wines of Alsace are appreciated for the diversity of their aromas, the typicality of which was for a long time judged mainly according to the grape variety of origin. Alsatian winegrowers have however widely sensed the importance of the environment of the vine on the quality of the wines. Efforts are made to try to harmonize in a reasoned way the interaction between the natural environment and the plant material with a view to developing the character of the grape variety through the fine expression of the terroir and making the quality and typicality even more inimitable. wines produced in Alsace.
Effects of soil water content and environmental conditions on vine water status and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera L. cv. chardonnay
Vine water status has a significant influence on vineyard yield and berry composition (Williams and Matthews, 1990; Williams et al., 1994). It has been hypothesized that the response of plants to soil water deficits may be due to some sort of “root signal” (Davies and Zhang, 1991). This signal probably arises due to the roots sensing a reduction in soil water content or an increase in the mecanical impedance as the soil dries out.
La topographie du vignoble de Côte Rôtie, la prédominance de la non culture ainsi que la structure très légère des sols amènent les vignerons à s’interroger sur l’entretien du sol, la conduite de la fertilisation de leurs parcelles ainsi que sur le développement racinaire de la vigne.
Franciacorta is a viticultural area which extends in the hills to the South of Iseo lake in Lombardy. It is particularly famous for the production of sparkling wines obtained mostly from Chardonnay and Pinot blanc and noir grapes. The name of this territory is of medieval origin and appeared for the first time in 1277 as “Franzacurta”, from the Latin “franchae curtes”, i.e. “tax-free” monasteries. It was geographically delimited in 1429, when it was a territory of the Republic of Venezia.