Calcium (Ca) is an important nutrient for plants which plays key signaling and structural roles. It has been observed that exogenous Ca application favors the pectin accumulation and inhibition of polygalacturonase enzymes, minimizing fruit spoilage. Silicon (Si) is a non-essential element which has been found to be beneficial for improving crop yield and quality, as well as plant tolerance to diverse abiotic and biotic stress factors. The effect of Si supply to grapevine has been assessed in few investigations, which reported positive changes in grape quality and must composition.
Late winter pruning induces a maturity delay under temperature-increased conditions in cv. Merlot from Chile
Chile is considered vulnerable to climate change; and these phenomena affect several mechanisms in the grape physiology and quality. The global temperature increase affects sugar contents, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in grapes, producing an imbalance maturity. In this sense, an alternative to reduce the impact is to perform pruning after vine budburst, known as “Late Pruning” (LP).
Effect of two water deficit regimes on the agronomic response of 12 grapevine varieties cultivated in a semi-arid climate
The Mediterranean basin is one of the most vulnerable regions to Climate Change effects. According to unanimous forecasts, the vineyards of Castilla-La Mancha will be among the most adversely affected by rising temperatures and water scarcity during the vine’s vegetative period. One potential strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of these changes involves the identification of grapevine varieties with superior water use efficiency, while ensuring satisfactory yields and grape quality.
Influence of irrigation frequency on berry phenolic composition of red grape varieties cultivated in four spanish wine-growing regions
The global warming phenomenon involves the frequency of extreme meteorological events accompanied by a change in rainfall distribution. Irrigation frequency (IF) affects the spatial and temporal soil water distribution but its effects on the phenolic composition of the grape have been scarcely studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of four deficit irrigation frequencies of 30 % ETo: one irrigation per day (T01), two irrigations per week (T03), one irrigation per week (T07) and one irrigation every two weeks (T15) on berry phenolic composition at harvest.
Response of red grape varieties irrigated during the summer to water availability at the end of winter in four Spanish wine-growing regions: berry phenolic composition
Water availability is the most limiting factor for vineyard productivity under Mediterranean conditions. Due to the effects caused by the current climate change, wine-growing regions may face serious soil moisture conservation problems, due to the lower water retention capacity of the soil and higher soil irradiation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil recharge irrigation in pre-sprouting and summer irrigation every week (30 % ETo) from the pea size state until the end of ripening (RP) compared to exclusively summer irrigation every week (R) in the same way that RP, on berry phenolic composition at harvest.
Phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics of blends of cv. Tempranillo wines from vines grown with different viticultural techniques in a semi-arid area
The quality and color stability of red wines are directly related to content and distribution of phenolic compounds. However, the climate change produces the asynchrony between the dates of technological and maturity of grapes. The crop-forcing technique (CF) restores the coupling between phenolic and technological ripeness while limits vineyard yields. Blending of wines is frequently used to equilibriate composition of wines and to increase their stability, color and quality. The aim of the present work is to study the phenolic composition and color of wine blends made with FW (wines from vines subjected to CF) and CW (wines for vines under the usual cultivation practices).
The odors of wines are diverse, complex and dynamic and much research has been devoted to the understanding of their chemical bases. However, while the “basic” chemical part of the problem, namely the identity of the chemicals responsible for the different odor nuances, was satisfactorily solved years ago, there are some relevant questions precluding a clear understanding. These questions are related to the physicochemical interactions determining the effective volatilities of the odorants and, particularly, to the perceptual interactions between different odor molecules affecting in different ways to the final sensory outputs.
Consumption of wine/alcoholic beverages remains a topic of great uncertainty and controversy worldwide. The term “no safe level” dominates the media communication and policy ever since population studies in 2018 [1,2] were published, which denied the existence of a J-curve and suggested that ANY consumption of an alcoholic beverage is harmful to health. The scientific evidence accumulated during the past decades about the health benefits of moderate wine consumption, were questioned and drinking guidelines considered to be too loose.
The seminar will examine the complexities and prospects of genomic research on Vitis species, characterize by exceptionally high heterozygosity and common interspecific gene flow. The seminar will showcase case studies highlighting the critical role of diploid genome references in grape research, specifically in areas such as aroma development, disease resistance, and domestication traits. It will also address the emerging focus on pangenomes within the Vitis genus, particularly in the context of genetic studies on naturally interbreeding populations.
Differences in metabolism among species and hybrids of the genus Saccharomyces during wine fermentation unveiled by multi-omic analysis
Yeast species S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii and their hybrids present clear metabolic differences, even when we compared S. cerevisiae wine versus wild strain. These species and hybrids produced significantly higher amounts of glycerol, organic acids, 2,3-butanediol, and 2-phenyl ethanol and a reduction of the ethanol yield, properties very interesting in the sector to deal with climate change effects. To understand the existing differences, we have used several omics techniques to analyze the dynamics of the (intra- and extracellular) metabolomes and/or transcriptomes of representative strains of S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, and hybrids.
Retrospective analysis of our knowledge regarding the genetics of relevant traits for rootstock breeding
Rootstocks were the first sustainable and environmentally friendly strategy to cope with a major threat for Vitis vinifera cultivation. In addition to providing Phylloxera resistance, they play an important role in protecting against other soil-borne pests, such as nematodes, and in adapting V. vinifera to limiting abiotic conditions. Today viticulture has to adapt to ongoing climate change whilst simultaneously reducing its environmental impact. In this context, rootstocks are a central element in the development of agro-ecological practices that increase adaptive potential with low external inputs. Despite the apparent diversity of the Vitis genus, only few rootstock varieties are used worldwide and most of them have a very narrow genetic background. This means that there is considerable scope to breed new, improved rootstocks to adapt viticulture for the future.
Grapevine trunk diseases (GTD) occur wherever grapes are grown and are considered the main biotic factor reducing yields and shortening vineyards’ lifespan. Currently, no product is available to eradicate GTD once grapevines are infected. Therefore, prophylactic strategies based on pruning wound protection and ‘remedial surgery’, the only eradication method based on the elimination of infected wood and renewal of the vine by means of new canes or suckers, are the only effective strategies available. The Canadian grape and wine industry focusses on a sustainable production and thus, looking for alternatives to chemicals for disease management is a top priority.
In Chile there is a dry farming area known as a traditional wine region, where varieties brought by the Spanish conquerors still persist. These varieties, in general, are cultivated under traditional systems, with low use of technical and economic resources, and low profitability for their grapes and wines. In this region, as in other wine grape growing areas, climatic conditions have changed significantly in recent decades. In particular, the occurrence of spring frosts, when bud break has already begun, have generated significant losses for these growers.
Brandy is a spirit drink made from “wine spirit” (<86% Alcohol by Volume – ABV; high levels of congeners and they are mainly less volatile than ethanol), it may be blended with a “wine distillate” (<94.8%ABV; low levels of congeners and these are mainly more volatile than ethanol), as long as that distillate does not exceed a maximum of 50% of the alcoholic content of the finished product. Brandy must be aged for at least 6 months in oak casks with <1000L of capacity. During ageing, changes occur in colour, flavour, and aroma that improve the quality of the original distillate.
Mycorrhizal symbiosis modulates flavonoid and amino acid profiles in grapes of Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbiosis is probably the most widespread beneficial interaction between plants and microorganisms. AMF has been widely reported to promote grapevine growth, water and nutrient uptake as well as both biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. However, the impact of AMF on grape composition has been less studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the association between two commercial grapevine cultivars (Tempranillo and Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 110 rootstock) and AMF on the anthocyanin, flavonol and amino acid concentrations and profiles of grapes.
Analysis of the interaction of melatonin with glycolytic proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation
Melatonin is a bioactive compound with antioxidant properties, that has been found in many fermented beverages, such as beer and wine . Indeed, it has been shown that yeast can synthesize melatonin during alcoholic fermentation, although its role inside the cell, as well as the metabolic pathway involved in its synthesis, is still unclear . Recent studies showed that during fermentation, melatonin interacts with different proteins of the glycolytic pathway in both Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast, for instance glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase or enolase .
Early defoliation positively enhances bioactive composition of berries with no effect on cuticle characteristics
Leaf removal in the fruit-zone has been employed to improve cluster light exposure and ventilation and therefore increase metabolite accumulation and reduce botrytis incidence in berries. When applied before flowering (early defoliation – ED), it can also decrease cluster compactness and regulate yield in high-yielding varieties. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ED on the physiology and metabolism of Aragonez (syn. Tempranillo) berries along the ripening period. The experiment was set up in 2013 at a commercial vineyard located in the Lisbon winegrowing region.
Grape pomace (GP) is a winemaking by-product particularly rich in (poly)phenols and dietary fiber, which are the main active compounds responsible for its health-promoting effects. GP-derived products have been proposed to manage cardiovascular risk factors, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and obesity. Studies on the potential impact of GP on gut health are much more recent. However, it is suggested that, to some extent, this activity of GP as a cardiometabolic health-promoting ingredient would begin in the gastrointestinal tract as GP components (i.e., (poly)phenols and fiber) undergo extensive catabolism, mainly by the action of the intestinal microbiota, that gives rise to low-molecular-weight bioactive compounds that can be absorbed and utilized by the body.