The “Terroirs d’Anjou” project led by the Agronomy sector of the Vine and Wine Research Unit of the INRA center in Angers aims to characterize the viticultural terroirs in a study area which includes 29 municipalities in the Maine et Loire and cuts across the Anjou, Coteaux du layon and Coteaux de l’Aubance appellation areas.
a) wine, a qualitative and user-friendly product, favors a visual support, even for a scientific study because it refers to the image of the terroir, in particular by its visible landscape. b) the vineyard landscape, which is fairly open by definition, favors this type of approach. c) the framework of the Terroir Test conducted by the URVV (INRA – Angers) comprises 15 micro-plots of 100 strains, and requires at this scale precise surveys of the environment, hence systematic shots, of the center of the plot, over 360°, at 50 mm intervals, at 1.70 m from the ground and horizontally.
Variabilité spatiale du gel printanier dans le vignoble champenois : application au zonage climatique
In the Champagne vineyards, spring frosts are the cause of significant variations in the volume of the harvest which are very penalizing for the trade. This variability is reflected both in time (years without frost alternating with years with severe frosts) and in space. Certain sectors of the vineyard are in fact statistically more susceptible to frost than others, but each year no municipality can consider itself immune to this climatic accident. The objective of the study is precisely to analyze the spatial distribution of frost and to determine its main mechanisms, linked to the topography of the hillsides, their orientation but also to regional meteorological variables.
In this study macro and micro nutrients of plants (N = NH4 + NO3 , P, K, Ca, Na, Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu) were determined both in soil solution and bleeding sap and compared each other. Bleeding sap was collected from the nine varieties of grapevine Cvs. grafted on 5BB rootstock and grown in different soil conditions. For all varieties, plant nutrients content in bleeding sap as higher than in soil solution except for Ca and Na. While in soil solution Ca content was found at 10209 ppm, this value in bleeding sap was 49.20 ppm (Kozak Beyazy), 55.38 ppm (Trakya Ylkeren), 50.37 (Cardinal) and 74.27 ppm (Tekirdaô Çekirdeksizi) respectively. For the same varieties the Na values were as follows : 7.16 ppm (in soil solution) : 4.8, 3.23, 4.21,4.58 ppm (in bleeding sap) respectively. K content in bleeding sap was higher than in soil solution for a few varieties, and lower in some varieties. Traces of Fe and Cu were found in both media.
The Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée of Bandol covers an area of 1365 ha, 83% of which are planted with vines, the annual production being around 40,000 hl. Among the wines produced, there are mainly reds which assert themselves over time, but also rosés characterized by their pale colour, generally orange; the whites represent a small part of the production. The main grape variety of this AOC is Mouvèdre, of Spanish origin, which is also found in Provence and Languedoc.
The Pomerol vineyard, located 35 km east of Bordeaux, covers around 800 ha on the left bank of the Isle. There is a system of fluvial terraces with more or less coarse gravel and pebble spreading, resting on a Tertiary substratum ranging from the Middle to Upper Eocene to the Lower Oligocene (Dubreuilh, 1993). This interweaving of terraces of varying thickness results in a brutal superposition of differentiated materials which give rise to various types of soil. Several site studies in this sector of the Libounais show significant morphological and analytical differences from one point to another (Guilloux et al ., 1978; Duteau, 1982; Van Leeuwen et al.., 1989). The distribution of the soils of the Pomerol vineyard was studied and resulted in a cartography at 1/25000th (Merouge, 1995).
Effects of soil water content and environmental conditions on vine water status and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera L. cv. chardonnay
Vine water status has a significant influence on vineyard yield and berry composition (Williams and Matthews, 1990; Williams et al., 1994). It has been hypothesized that the response of plants to soil water deficits may be due to some sort of “root signal” (Davies and Zhang, 1991). This signal probably arises due to the roots sensing a reduction in soil water content or an increase in the mecanical impedance as the soil dries out.
Adaptation et expression de l’encépagement et mode de conduite en différents terroirs de la région du Douro/vin de Porto
Ce travail a pour objet l’analyse des résultats agronomiques obtenus sur trois unités expérimentales du Centre d’Etudes Vitivinicoles du Douro (CEVDouro), localisées dans des écosystèmes différenciés de la Région du Douro/Vin de Porto, à différentes altitudes (130, 330 et 520 mètres) et à des expositions diversifiées (SE, N et W).
Aspects concernant les relations entre quelques composantes de la biomasse viticole, en fonction de l’offre des ressources écologiques
Ecological resources represent vegetation factors, or even production factors, in quantitative expression. These, used by plants, transformed and organized according to their genetic program, become the material components of biomass. Subsequently, the ecological resources can be used as synthetic indicators of the ecological supply, necessary for the analysis of favorability for the understanding of ecosystems.
In addition to studies on the edaphic and landscape characteristics of the environment (Dolédec, 1995), the characterization of the physiology of the vine and of parasitism during its vegetative cycle represents an essential component of knowledge and management of the terroirs.
Effets des pratiques agro-viticoles sur l’activité biologique et la matière organique des sols : exemples en Champagne et en Bourgogne
The notion of terroir covers multiple components, from geology, pedology, geomorphology and climatology (Doledec, 1995), to aspects that are less well identified but which also intervene in the “typicality” of wines. This justifies the “zoning” approach (Moncomble and Panigaï, 1990) to define homogeneous areas, under the same agro-viticultural management and also identified at the product level (Morlat and Asselin, 1992).
La topographie du vignoble de Côte Rôtie, la prédominance de la non culture ainsi que la structure très légère des sols amènent les vignerons à s’interroger sur l’entretien du sol, la conduite de la fertilisation de leurs parcelles ainsi que sur le développement racinaire de la vigne.
The AOC Saint-Emilion, one of the most prestigious in Bordeaux, is located on the right bank of the Dordogne upstream from Libourne. The vineyard is planted on Tertiary (Oligocene) and Quaternary geological formations, on which very varied soils have developed. Numerous studies have taken account of this heterogeneity and made it possible to better understand the functioning and viticultural potential of these soils (Duteau et al. 1981, Van Leeuwen, 1991).
A worrying drop in the acidity of wines has been observed in many wine regions, such as Bordeaux (Merlot), Burgundy (Pinot Noir), Côtes-du-Rhône (Grenache) or Rioja (Tempranillo). This lack of acidity is particularly marked in the Midi-Pyrenean vineyards of the Côtes du Frontonnais (Tournier, 1993). However, the acidity of a wine is one of the main factors of its quality, in fact, a low acidity combined with an insufficient tannic structure leads to rapid oxidation of wines and makes them age prematurely.
Interactions « Terroir x Vigne » : facteurs de maîtrise du micro-environnement et de la physiologie de la plante en rapport avec le niveau de maturité et les éléments de typicité
Le vigneron européen est de plus en plus à la recherche de la valorisation de son terroir par la personnalisation de la typicité de ses produits. Dans ce contexte, il est apparu depuis longtemps que la part des facteurs technologiques ou humains est d’une importance capitale face aux conditions de l’envirormement naturel. Le terroir se construit plus qu’il ne se subit.
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The Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée area of Cahors (Lot) covers an area of 21,700 ha, spread over 45 municipalities, of which only 4,300 are planted with vines. The main grape variety of this AOC is the Cot noir which represents 70% of the grape varieties, thus giving their typicality to the wines of this region; but despite this importance, to our knowledge, its physiology has remained relatively unstudied.
The analysis of the distribution of natural plant populations allows an ecological characterization of cultivated environments in thermal, water and trophic terms; it guides the choice or selection of plants (or grape varieties) to cultivate (Astruc et al ., 1984, 1987; Delpoux, 1971; Jacquinet and Astruc, 1979). This approach has given good results in areas where the topography is the determining factor in the ecological differentiation of the terroirs.